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  1. Ultra-endurance cyclists regularly report various extents of bodily decline during long-distance bicycle rides, including potential kidney function-related symptoms such as swelling of body parts and urine cha...

    Authors: Philipp Gauckler, Jana S. Kesenheimer, Andreas Kronbichler and Fiona R. Kolbinger

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:73

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a multifunctional functional food that reportedly exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vasodilation, and cellular regulatory properties. This vegetable has gained a f...

    Authors: Zinandré Stander, Laneke Luies, Mari van Reenen, Glyn Howatson, Karen M. Keane, Tom Clifford, Emma J. Stevenson and Du Toit Loots

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:72

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) has been examined as a proxy for low energy availability (EA). Previous studies have been limited to adult athletes, despite the serious health consequences of low EA, particularly...

    Authors: Norimitsu Kinoshita, Eriko Uchiyama, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Yuka Yamada and Kenta Okuyama

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:70

    Content type: Research article

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  4. When a high-carbohydrate diet is ingested, whether as small frequent snacks or as large meals, there is no difference between the two with respect to post-exercise glycogen storage for a period of 24 h. Howeve...

    Authors: Yutaka Matsunaga, Kenya Takahashi, Yumiko Takahashi and Hideo Hatta

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:69

    Content type: Research article

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  5. An accurate estimation of athletes’ energy needs is crucial in diet planning to improve sport performance and to maintain an appropriate body composition. This study aimed to develop and validate in elite athl...

    Authors: Maurizio Marra, Olivia Di Vincenzo, Iolanda Cioffi, Rosa Sammarco, Delia Morlino and Luca Scalfi

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Various nutritional strategies are adopted for athletes to maintain and to improve performance during the competition season. Betaine may enhance performance during a competitive season by increasing the testo...

    Authors: Hadi Nobari, Jason M Cholewa, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez, Mehdi Kargarfard and Jorge Pérez-Gómez

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:67

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Previous narrative reviews have concluded that dietary nitrate (NO3) improves maximal neuromuscular power in humans. This conclusion, however, was based on a limited number of studies, and no attempt has been ma...

    Authors: Andrew R. Coggan, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Rachel J. Hinrichs, Ziyue Liu and Stephen J. Carter

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:66

    Content type: Review

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  8. American-style football (ASF) athletes are at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and exhibit elevated levels of serum neurofilament light (Nf-L), a biomarker of axonal injury that is associated with repetit...

    Authors: Jeffery L. Heileson, Anthony J. Anzalone, Aaron F. Carbuhn, Andrew T. Askow, Jason D. Stone, Stephanie M. Turner, Lyn M. Hillyer, David W. L. Ma, Joel A. Luedke, Andrew R. Jagim and Jonathan M. Oliver

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:65

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The primary nutritional challenge facing endurance runners is meeting the nutrient requirements necessary to optimize the performance and recovery of prolonged training sessions. Supplement intake is a commonl...

    Authors: Wirnitzer Katharina, Motevalli Mohamad, Tanous Derrick, Gregori Martina, Wirnitzer Gerold, Leitzmann Claus, Hill Lee, Rosemann Thomas and Knechtle Beat

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing have been shown to enhance endurance and sprint performance. However, the effects of CHO and CAF mouth rinsing on muscular and cognitive performance in compa...

    Authors: Raci Karayigit, Ajmol Ali, Sajjad Rezaei, Gulfem Ersoz, Angel Lago-Rodriguez, Raúl Domínguez and Alireza Naderi

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research article

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  11. A ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach, usually adopted for weight loss, that restricts daily carbohydrates under 30 g/day. KD showed contradictory results on sport performance, whilst no data are ava...

    Authors: A. Antonio Paoli, Laura Mancin, Massimiliano Caprio, Elena Monti, Marco V. Narici, Lorenzo Cenci, Fabio Piccini, Matteo Pincella, Davide Grigoletto and Giuseppe Marcolin

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Based on a comprehensive review and critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance, conducted by experts in the field and selected membe...

    Authors: Jozo Grgic, Zeljko Pedisic, Bryan Saunders, Guilherme G. Artioli, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Michael J. McKenna, David J. Bishop, Richard B. Kreider, Jeffrey R. Stout, Douglas S. Kalman, Shawn M. Arent, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Hector L. Lopez, Tim N. Ziegenfuss, Louise M. Burke, Jose Antonio…

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:61

    Content type: Review

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  13. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of creatine supplementation for improvements in exercise performance. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of phosphocreatine supplementation on exerc...

    Authors: John Paul V. Anders, Tyler J. Neltner, Robert W. Smith, Joshua L. Keller, Terry J. Housh, F. Joseph Daugherty, Michael S. Tempesta, Alekha K. Dash, Daniel J. Munt, Richard J. Schmidt and Glen O. Johnson

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Sport-related nutritional supplements (SRNSs) include sport drinks, sport bars, and sport gels. Previous studies indicate that 25–35 % of athletes and 25–50 % of military personnel report using these supplemen...

    Authors: Joseph J. Knapik, Daniel W. Trone, Ryan A. Steelman, Emily K. Farina and Harris R. Lieberman

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:59

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Exercise increases skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which may contribute to the onset of muscular fatigue and impair athletic performance. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as Mi...

    Authors: S. C. Broome, A. J. Braakhuis, C. J. Mitchell and T. L. Merry

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research article

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  16. This paper aimed to verify how a supplementation of rower’s diet with Astragalus Membranaceus Root (AMR) modulated their immune system response to maximal physical exertion.

    Authors: Ewa Latour, Jaroslaw Arlet, Emilia E. Latour, Artur Juszkiewicz, Karolina Łuczkowska, Anita Marcinkiewicz, Piotr Basta, Jerzy Trzeciak, Bogusław Machaliński and Anna Skarpańska-Stejnborn

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:57

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The effects of low muscle glycogen on molecular markers of protein synthesis and myogenesis before and during aerobic exercise with carbohydrate ingestion is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine...

    Authors: Lee M. Margolis, Marques A. Wilson, Claire C. Whitney, Christopher T. Carrigan, Nancy E. Murphy, Adrienne Hatch-McChesney and Stefan M. Pasiakos

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:56

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Nitrate supplementation is thought to improve performance in endurance sports.

    Authors: Chloe Gao, Saurabh Gupta, Taranah Adli, Winston Hou, Reid Coolsaet, Abigail Hayes, Kevin Kim, Arjun Pandey, Jacob Gordon, Gurneet Chahil, Emilie P. Belley-Cote and Richard P. Whitlock

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:55

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Recent studies in rodents indicate that a combination of exercise training and supplementation with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has synergistic effects. However, there are currently no hum...

    Authors: Bagen Liao, Yunlong Zhao, Dan Wang, Xiaowen Zhang, Xuanming Hao and Min Hu

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:54

    Content type: Research article

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  20. We described here the annual variations in mean dietary creatine intake from 1999 to 2018 in U.S. children and adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database.

    Authors: Darinka Korovljev, Nikola Todorovic, Valdemar Stajer and Sergej M. Ostojic

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:53

    Content type: Short report

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  21. The purpose of this study was to compare a flexible vs. rigid diet on weight loss and subsequent weight regain in resistance-trained (RT) participants in a randomized, parallel group design.

    Authors: Laurin Alexandra Conlin, Danielle Trina Aguilar, Gavin Elliot Rogers and Bill I Campbell

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Dietary supplement use among recreational athletes is common, with the intention of reducing inflammation and improving recovery. We aimed to describe the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid supplement use...

    Authors: Mette Wærstad Hansen, Stein Ørn, Christine B. Erevik, Magnus Friestad Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, Øyvind Skadberg, Tor H. Melberg, Kristin M. Aakre and Øyunn Kleiven

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Acute capsaicinoid and capsinoid supplementation has endurance and resistance exercise benefits; however, if these short-term performance benefits translate into chronic benefits when combined with resistance ...

    Authors: Vilton Emanoel Lopes de Moura e Silva, Jason Michael Cholewa, Ralf Jäger, Nelo Eidy Zanchi, Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Rayane Carvalho de Moura, Esmeralda Maria Lustosa Barros, Barbara Moura Antunes, Erico Chagas Caperuto, Sergio Luiz Galan Ribeiro, Fabio Santos Lira, Marcos Antônio Pereira dos Santos and Fabrício Eduardo Rossi

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:50

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Previous investigations have found positive effects of acute ingestion of capsules containing 4-to-9 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass on several aspects of judo performance. However, no previous investigatio...

    Authors: Aleksandra Filip-Stachnik, Robert Krawczyk, Michal Krzysztofik, Agata Rzeszutko-Belzowska, Marcin Dornowski, Adam Zajac, Juan Del Coso and Michal Wilk

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research article

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  25. This study aimed to investigate the effect of multi-ingredient intra- (BA) versus extra- (ALK) cellular buffering factor supplementation, combined with the customary intake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)...

    Authors: Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof Kusy, Natalia Główka and Jacek Zieliński

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Tart cherry supplementation has been shown to enhance recovery from strenuous exercise due to its antioxidant properties. The majority of these studies used tart cherry juice, with a significant calorie conten...

    Authors: D. R. Hooper, T. Orange, M. T. Gruber, A. A. Darakjian, K. L. Conway and H. A. Hausenblas

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research article

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  27. There is a reported mismatch between macronutrient consumption and contemporary macronutrient guidelines in elite standard squash players. Suboptimal dietary practices could be due to a lack of nutrition knowl...

    Authors: Ollie Turner, Nigel Mitchell, Alan Ruddock, Alison Purvis and Mayur Ranchordas

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The increased popularity of the bikini-physique competitions has not translated to greater research identifying the influence of age on adaptations during contest preparation. The purpose of this case series w...

    Authors: Daniel E. Newmire and Heather E. Webb

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:45

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Intensive physical exercise that competitive sports athletes participate in can negatively affect their pro-oxidative–antioxidant balance. Compounds with high antioxidant potential, such as those present in ch...

    Authors: Błażej Stankiewicz, Mirosława Cieślicka, Sławomir Kujawski, Elżbieta Piskorska, Tomasz Kowalik, Justyna Korycka and Anna Skarpańska-Stejnborn

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The aim of this study was to investigate if the supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) juice may affect plasma redox balance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters following a maximal effort test, i...

    Authors: Marianna Bellafiore, Anna Maria Pintaudi, Ewan Thomas, Luisa Tesoriere, Antonino Bianco, Angelo Cataldo, Dario Cerasola, Marcello Traina, Maria Antonia Livrea and Antonio Palma

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:43

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Systemic elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines are a marker of non-functional over reaching, and betaine has been shown to reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. The aim of this study ...

    Authors: Hadi Nobari, Jason M. Cholewa, Jorge Pérez-Gómez and Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research article

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  32. To achieve ideal strength/power to mass ratio, athletes may attempt to lower body mass through reductions in fat mass (FM), while maintaining or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) by manipulating their training re...

    Authors: Julie L. Coleman, Christopher T. Carrigan and Lee M. Margolis

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:41

    Content type: Review

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  33. Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances exercise performance; however, the efficacy of CHO intake on repeated bouts of exercise simulating a taekwondo tournament is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to compare...

    Authors: Alireza Naderi, Mohammad Hossein Samanipour, Amir Sarshin, Scott C. Forbes, Majid S. Koozehchian, Emerson Franchini, Reid Reale, Erfan Berjisian, Erick P. de Oliveira, Hossein Miraftabi, Maryam Safari Sharafshadeh and Sajjad Rezaei

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:40

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Taurine has become a popular supplement among athletes attempting to improve performance. While the effectiveness of taurine as an ergogenic aid remains controversial, this paper summarizes the current evidenc...

    Authors: Jennifer A. Kurtz, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, J. Andrew Doyle and Jeffrey S. Otis

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:39

    Content type: Review

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  35. Isomaltulose has been discussed as a low glycaemic carbohydrate but evidence concerning performance benefits and physiological responses has produced varying results. Therefore, we primarily aimed to investiga...

    Authors: Hannah L. Notbohm, Joshua F. Feuerbacher, Finn Papendorf, Nils Friese, Mats W. Jacobs, Hans-Georg Predel, Jonas Zacher, Wilhelm Bloch and Moritz Schumann

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Endurance athletes typically consume carbohydrate-rich diets to allow for optimal performance during competitions and intense training. However, acute exercise studies have revealed that training or recovery w...

    Authors: Kasper Degn Gejl and Lars Nybo

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:37

    Content type: Review

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  37. Elite athletes may suffer from impaired immune function and gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms, which may affect their health and may impede their performance. These symptoms may be reduced by multi-strain probio...

    Authors: Chen Schreiber, Snait Tamir, Ron Golan, Ayelet Weinstein and Yitzhak Weinstein

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:36

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Food frequency questionnaires are considered an effective method for assessing habitual dietary intake, but they must be developed or validated with the target population. Portion size, supplement use and food...

    Authors: Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Kaori Okamoto and Motoko Taguchi

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Hong Kong is a densely populated city with a low incidence and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The city imposed different levels of social distancing including, the closure of sports venues a...

    Authors: Jingxuan Wang, Eng Kiong Yeoh, Tony Ka Chun Yung, Martin Chi Sang Wong, Dong Dong, Xiao Chen, Maggie Ka Ying Chan, Eliza Lai Yi Wong, Yushan Wu, Zihao Guo, Yawen Wang, Shi Zhao and Ka Chun Chong

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research article

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  40. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chloé Lavoué, Julien Siracusa, Émeric Chalchat, Cyprien Bourrilhon and Keyne Charlot

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:32

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2020 17:36

  41. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Diego Muñoz, Francisco J. Grijota, Ignacio Bartolomé, Jesús Siquier-Coll, Víctor Toro-Román and Marcos Maynar

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:31

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2020 17:43

  42. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: M. Maynar, F. J. Grijota, J. Siquier-Coll, I. Bartolome, M. C. Robles and D. Muñoz

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:30

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2020 17:35

  43. To compare serum levels of bone turnover markers in athletes and non-athletes, and to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and exercise-induced changes in biomarker levels.

    Authors: Jan Mieszkowski, Andrzej Kochanowicz, Elżbieta Piskorska, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Joanna Siódmiak, Krzysztof Buśko, Blazej Stankiewicz, Dorota Olszewska-Słonina and Jędrzej Antosiewicz

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Physical training produces changes in the extracellular and intracellular concentrations of trace minerals elements. To our knowledge, only three compartments have been studied simultaneously. The aim of the p...

    Authors: Víctor Toro-Román, Jesús Siquier-Coll, Ignacio Bartolomé, Francisco J. Grijota, Diego Muñoz and Marcos Maynar-Mariño

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Although there is a plethora of information available regarding the impact of nutrition on exercise performance, many recommendations are based on male needs due to the dominance of male participation in the n...

    Authors: Kealey J. Wohlgemuth, Luke R. Arieta, Gabrielle J. Brewer, Andrew L. Hoselton, Lacey M. Gould and Abbie E. Smith-Ryan

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:27

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  46. Blueberries are concentrated with anthocyanins possessing antioxidant properties. As these properties counter fatigue, blueberry supplementation may improve performance and recovery, particularly in hypoxia, w...

    Authors: Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effects of 3 and 6 mg of caffeine intake per kg of body mass (b.m.) on maximal strength and strength-endurance in women habituated to caffeine.

    Authors: Aleksandra Filip-Stachnik, Michal Wilk, Michal Krzysztofik, Ewelina Lulińska, James J. Tufano, Adam Zajac, Petr Stastny and Juan Del Coso

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Low energy availability in male athletes has gained a lot of attention in recent years, but direct evidence of its effects on health and performance is lacking. The aim of this research was to objectively meas...

    Authors: Iva Jurov, Nicola Keay, Vedran Hadžić, Darjan Spudić and Samo Rauter

    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2021 18:24

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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