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Table 4 Analysis of the effect sizes (Cohen’s d), expressed as the mean (95% CI) and p value, for differences in adjusted means between the groups after the intervention

From: Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation enhances aerobic capacity in amateur runners: a randomized, double-blind study

  Lower VS control Medium VS control High VS control Medium VS Lower High VS Lower High VS Medium
ES (95%CI) P value ES (95%CI) P value ES (95%CI) P value ES (95%CI) P value ES (95%CI) P value ES (95%CI) P value
VO2@VT1 0.61 0.16 1.45 <0.01 2.62 <0.01 0.83 0.05 2.03 <0.01 1.20 0.01
(L/min) -0.25,1.42 0.48,2.30 1.43,3.62 -0.03,1.63 0.99,2.93 0.30,2.03
%VO2max@VT1 0.34 0.42 0.89 0.04 1.56 0.01 0.55 0.19 1.22 0.01 0.69 0.10
(%) -0.50,1.15 0.00,1.71 0.58,2.45 -0.28,1.34 0.31,2.04 -0.16,1.49
HR@VT1 0.1 0.81 0.86 0.05 1.19 0.01 0.72 0.09 1.06 0.02 0.36 0.38
(bpm) -0.72,0.92 -0.02,1.68 0.26,2.03 -0.13,1.52 0.17,1.87 -0.46,1.15
Power @VT1 0.56 0.18 1.15 0.01 2.30 <0.01 0.58 0.16 1.74 <0.01 1.17 0.01
(Mets) -0.29,1.38 0.23,1.99 1.18,3.25 -0.25,1.38 0.75,2.61 0.27,1.99
Power @VT2 0.99 0.02 0.77 0.07 1.25 0.01 0.22 0.59 0.26 0.52 0.48 0.24
(Mets) 0.09,1.82 -0.10,1.59 0.32,2.09 -0.59,1.01 -0.55,1.05 -0.35,1.27
  1. bpm beat per minute