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Table 1 Volunteer characteristics

From: Body composition changes in physically active individuals consuming ketogenic diets: a systematic review

First author, ref N Population description Sex Age (yr) Wt (kg) BMI
Crossover Study Design
 Greene et al. [22], 12 Elite powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting 7 M, 5F 35 ± 11 78 ± 12 NR
 Heatherly et al. [24], L 8 Trained runners M 40 ± 10 82 ± 7 NR
 Nazaraweicz et al. [25],L 20 Recreationally active F 21-23R 62 ± 10 21.5 ± 2.1
 Prins et al. [23], 7 Recreational distance runners M 36 ± 8 69 ± 2 21.5 ± 1.1
Parallel Study Design
 Dostal et al. [26], KD: 12
CON: 12
Recreationally active 7 M, 17F 25 ± 2
24 ± 4
67 ± 10
73 ± 15
NR
 Gregory et al. [30], KD: 12
CON: 15
Recreational CrossFit trainees 5 M, 22F 35 ± 9
34 ± 9
77 ± 14
72 ± 13
26.0 ± 2.9
26.0 ± 2.8
 Kephart et al. [28], KD: 7
CON: 5
Recreational CrossFit trainees 9 M, 3F 32 ± 8
29 ± 7
83 ± 22
77 ± 12
28.3a
26.6a
 LaFountain et al. [29], KD: 15
CON: 14
Military personnel 25 M, 4F 27 ± 7
25 ± 9
86 ± 8
80 ± 6
27.9 ± 2.9
24.9 ± 2.4
 McSwiney et al. [16], KD: 9
CON: 11
Endurance athletes M 34 ± 7
32 ± 6
86 ± 14
77 ± 10
25.6 ± 3.0
23.9 ± 2.9
 Paoli et al. [31], KD: 9
CON: 10
Competitive body builders M 26 ± 5
31 ± 10
86 ± 15
89 ± 11
26.9 ± 1.9
26.6 ± 2.0
 Vargas et al. [15], KD: 9
CON: 10
Resistance-trained M 28 ± 4
27 ± 6
79 ± 8
75 ± 5
24.4 ± 2.6
23.9 ± 1.6
 Vargas-Molina et al. [27], KD: 10
CON: 11
Resistance-trained F 27 ± 4
28 ± 4
62 ± 10
63 ± 6
23.8 ± 3.6
23.7 ± 2.2
 Wilson et al. [11], KD: 13
CON: 12
Resistance-trained M 24 ± 5
21 ± 4
80 ± 15
78 ± 10
NR
  1. Values mean ± SD
  2. Abbreviations: NR not reported
  3. Lindicates longitudinal study design
  4. Rindicates range
  5. aindicates BMI calculated from available data