Del Coso J, Muñoz G, Muñoz-Guerra J. Prevalence of caffeine use in elite athletes following its removal from the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned substances. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(4):555–61.
Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):315–24.
Astorino TA, Roberson DW. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):257–65.
Ranchordas MK, King G, Russell M, Lynn A, Russell M. Effects of caffeinated gum on a battery of soccer-specific tests in trained university-standard male soccer players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018:1–18.
Del Coso J, Munoz-Fernandez VE, Munoz G, Fernandez-Elias VE, Ortega JF, Hamouti N, Barbero JC, Munoz-Guerra J. Effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on simulated soccer performance. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31380.
Burke LM. Caffeine and sports performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33(6):1319–34.
Kalmar JM, Cafarelli E. Caffeine: a valuable tool to study central fatigue in humans? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004;32(4):143–7.
Davis JK, Green JM. Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Med. 2009;39(10):813–32.
Santos VG, Santos VR, Felippe LJ, Almeida JW, Bertuzzi R, Kiss MA, Lima-Silva AE. Caffeine reduces reaction time and improves performance in simulated-contest of taekwondo. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):637–49.
Jordan JB, Korgaokar A, Farley RS, Coons JM, Caputo JL. Caffeine supplementation and reactive agility in elite youth soccer players. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014;26(2):168–76.
Roberts SP, Trewartha G, Higgitt RJ, El-Abd J, Stokes KA. The physical demands of elite English rugby union. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(8):825–33.
Quarrie KL, Cantu RC, Chalmers DJ. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord. Sports Med. 2002;32(10):633–53.
Austin D, Gabbett T, Jenkins D. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(10):1105–12.
Coughlan GF, Green BS, Pook PT, Toolan E, O'Connor SP. Physical game demands in elite rugby union: a global positioning system analysis and possible implications for rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(8):600–5.
Cunniffe B, Proctor W, Baker JS, Davies B. An evaluation of the physiological demands of elite rugby union using global positioning system tracking software. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(4):1195–203.
Del Coso J, Portillo J, Muñoz G, Abián-Vicén J, Gonzalez-Millán C, Muñoz-Guerra J. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition. Amino Acids. 2013;44(6):1511–9.
Stuart GR, Hopkins WG, Cook C, Cairns SP. Multiple effects of caffeine on simulated high-intensity team-sport performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(11):1998–2005.
Magkos F, Kavouras SA. Caffeine use in sports, pharmacokinetics in man, and cellular mechanisms of action. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45(7–8):535–62.
Graham T, Hibbert E, Sathasivam P. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. J Appl Physiol. 1998;85(3):883–9.
Bloms LP, Fitzgerald JS, Short MW, Whitehead JR. The effects of caffeine on vertical jump height and execution in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(7):1855–61.
Kamimori GH, Karyekar CS, Otterstetter R, Cox DS, Balkin TJ, Belenky GL, Eddington ND. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. Int J Pharm. 2002;234(1):159–67.
Paton CD, Lowe T, Irvine A. Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110(6):1243–50.
Chen M, Shah VP, Crommelin DJ, Shargel L, Bashaw D, Bhatti M, Blume H, Dressman J, Ducharme M, Fackler P. Harmonization of regulatory approaches for evaluating therapeutic equivalence and interchangeability of multisource drug products: workshop summary report. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011;44(4):506–13.
Russell M, Reynolds N, Crewther B, Cook C, Kilduff L. The physiological and performance effects of caffeine gum consumed during a simulated half-time by professional academy Rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res. 2018.
Bell DG, McLellan TM. Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93(4):1227–34.
Evans M, Tierney P, Gray N, Hawe G, Macken M, Egan B. Acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum improves repeated Sprint performance of team sport athletes with low habitual caffeine consumption. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018;28(3):221–7.
Markovic G, Dizdar D, Jukic I, Cardinale M. Reliability and factorial validity of squat and countermovement jump tests. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2004;18(3):551–5.
Hachana Y, Chaabene H, Nabli MA, Attia A, Moualhi J, Farhat N, Elloumi M. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(10):2752–9.
Spencer M, Fitzsimons M, Dawson B, Bishop D, Goodman C. Reliability of a repeated-sprint test for field-hockey. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(1–2):181–4.
Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Sports Med. 2008;38(1):37–51.
Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):377–81.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press; 1988.
Clarke JS, Highton J, Close GL, Twist C. Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play. J Strength Cond Res. 2016.
Tucker MA, Hargreaves JM, Clarke JC, Dale DL, Blackwell GJ. The effect of caffeine on maximal oxygen uptake and vertical jump performance in male basketball players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2013;27(2):382–7.
Stojanovic E, Stojiljkovic N, Scanlan AT, Dalbo VJ, Stankovic R, Antic V, Milanovic Z: Acute caffeine supplementation promotes small to moderate improvements in performance tests indicative of in-game success in professional female basketball players. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019, (ja).
Del Coso J, Salinero JJ, González-Millán C, Abián-Vicén J, Pérez-González B. Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9(1):21.
Carr A, Dawson B, Schneiker K, Goodman C, Lay B. Effect of caffeine supplementation on repeated sprint running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008;48(4):472.
Mohr M, Nielsen JJ, Bangsbo J. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011;111(5):1372–9.
Lorino AJ, Lloyd LK, Crixell SH, Walker JL. The effects of caffeine on athletic agility. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(4):851–4.
Astorino TA, Matera AJ, Basinger J, Evans M, Schurman T, Marquez R. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Amino Acids. 2012;42(5):1803–8.
Lee CL, Cheng CF, Astorino TA, Lee CJ, Huang HW, Chang WD. Effects of carbohydrate combined with caffeine on repeated sprint cycling and agility performance in female athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014;11:17–2783.
Duvnjak-Zaknich DM, Dawson BT, Wallman KE, Henry G. Effect of caffeine on reactive agility time when fresh and fatigued. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):1523–30.
Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3–13.
Behrens M, Mau-Moeller A, Weippert M, Fuhrmann J, Wegner K, Skripitz R, Bader R, Bruhn S. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10209.
Davis JM, Zhao Z, Stock HS, Mehl KA, Buggy J, Hand GA. Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284(2):R399–404.
Morris C, Viriot SM, Mirza QUF, Morris G, Lynn A. Caffeine release and absorption from caffeinated gums. Food Funct. 2019.
Desbrow B, Barrett CM, Minahan CL, Grant GD, Leveritt MD. Caffeine, cycling performance, and exogenous CHO oxidation: a dose-response study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(9):1744–51.
Jenkins NT, Trilk JL, Singhal A, O’Connor PJ, Cureton KJ. Ergogenic effects of low doses of caffeine on cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008;18(3):328–42.
Ryan EJ, Kim C, Muller MD, Bellar DM, Barkley JE, Bliss MV, Jankowski-Wilkinson A, Russell M, Otterstetter R, Macander D. Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(3):844–50.