Immune, antioxidant and inflammatory targets that L-glutamine, L-arginine and BCAA are involved. From L-glutamine, glutamate (GLU) is produced through glutaminase activity (GLS), releasing ammonium ion (NH4+). Inside of mitochondria or in the cytosol, glutamate from L-glutamine, L-leucine (LEU) or L-arginine (ARG) is an important fuel (ATP) and/or precursor for the synthesis of intermediate metabolism of amino acids such as ornithine (ORN), antioxidant defenses such as glutathione (GSH), anabolic signals through mTOR cascade, and cell repair system such the as the heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs are modulated by the heat shock factor 1, which is activated by the glucosamine pathway, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and human antigen R (Hur), also known as nutrient sensors. De novo L-glutamine synthesis can occur through L-glutamine synthetase (GS), using glutamate, ATP and ammonia (NH3). L-glutamine is transported inside the cell trough active transport with sodium (Na+) potassium (K+) ATPase, which augment the absorption of water, altering the volume of the cell and stimulate the resistance to damage. L-arginine availability is important to NO production through nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and citrulline (CIT). Other Abbreviations: heat shock elements (HSEs); oxidized GSH (GSSG); GSH-S reductase (GSR); glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD); alpha-ketoglutarato (α-KG).