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Table 2 Glucose, insulin, lactate, and cortisol concentrations at each stage of competition.

From: Biochemical Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation in a Simulated Competition of Short Terrestrial Duathlon

Stage GLUCOSE (mmol/L) INSULIN (UI/mL) LACTATE (mmol/L) CORT (g/dL)
Pre     
   Malt 5.4 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 5.9 1.4 ± 0.2 13.1 ± 2.8
   Pla 5.2 ± 0.4 11.3 ± 10.1 2.0 ± 1.1 13.1 ± 3.8
During     
   Malt 6.4 ± 0.5 7.5 ± 2.4 10.3 ± 2.9 23.6 ± 5.8
   Pla 5.8 ± 1.2 6.5 ± 1.0 9.6 ± 1.0 22.4 ± 5.6
Post     
   Malt 7.0 ± 0.4 *† 8.1 ± 2.1 5.2 ± 1.2 * 20.8 ± 5.2*
   Pla 4.7 ± 0.7 *† 6.8 ± 4.6 6.1 ± 2.8 * 25.1 ± 4.3*
  1. Values are mean ± SD. MALT = maltodextrin group; PLA = placebo group. Units of Measure: CORT = cortisol. * significant differences among the phases of the same group; p < 0.05; † significant differences among different groups; p < 0.05.