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Table 1 Dietary supplements that may be beneficial for women

From: Sex differences and considerations for female specific nutritional strategies: a narrative review

Supplement Purpose Dose
Beta-alanine Enhance exercise performance 4-6g/day in 1-2g divided doses for 4 wks
Acts as a buffer A slower releasing supplement can increase skeletal muscle carnosine levels more than a rapid releasing supplement
Fatigue attenuation
Optimize recovery
Caffeine Increase athletic performance Doses between 3-9 mg/kg/ allow ergogenic effects when consumed 60 minutes before exercise
Spare glycogen by increasing fat metabolism
Decrease pain perception
Calcium Vital to muscle contraction and relaxation 1000mg/day
Helpful for bone density
Creatine Monohydrate Enhance exercise performance 0.3g/kg of body weight 4 times a day for 5 to 7 days for a “loading phase”
Decrease injury risk
Enhance rehabilitation
Decrease disease risk in young, middle aged, and old age groups
Increased fat free mass Followed by a "maintenance" phase where one where one should ingest 5g/day
Effective during menses, pregnancy, and post-partum (regulate mood and decrease depression)
Beneficial to mental health
Beneficial to bone health
Folate Decrease chance of anemia 400ug/day
Iron Decrease chance of anemia 18mg/day
Omega-3 Anti-inflammation To see the benefits of omega-3, 1-3g should be consumed a day
Decrease the overall risk of disease
Plays a vital role in growth and development
Improve immune function
Decrease depression
Probiotics Meet overall health needs Consuming a multistrain probiotic
Regulate immune and digestive function Probiotics taken daily should include 10 to 20 billion colony forming units (CFU)
Regulate uro-genital tract
Promote skin health
Reduce inflammation
Riboflavin Help skin 1.1mg/day
Regulate endocrine function 1.6mg per 1000 calories (if exercising or lactating)
Vitamin B12 Decrease chance of anemia 2.4ug/day
Vitamin D3 Promote bone health 2,000 to 4,000 IU is safe and beneficial
Whey Protein 20-30g boluses throughout the day to reach the recommended 1.6g/kg/day for active women 20-30g boluses throughout the day to reach the recommended 1.6g/kg/day for active women
Improve body composition
Increase bone mineral density
Important to muscle protein synthesis
Increase time to exhaustion during exercise
Improve recovery