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Table 1 Changes (mean ± SD, range, 95% confidence interval) in haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb) and osmolality, serum concentration of sodium, potassium magnesium and chloride before (Pre), and immediately (0) and 65 min following downhill running (DHR) for the spring water (Water) and electrolyte water (OS-1) intake during DHR and 40 min after DHR. *: significant (P < 0.05) difference from the pre-value, #: significant (P < 0.05) difference between conditions

From: Effect of oral rehydration solution versus spring water intake during exercise in the heat on muscle cramp susceptibility of young men

  Condition Pre 0 65 ANOVA
Hct
(%)
Water 45.7 ± 2.5 45.2 ± 2.5 45.5 ± 2.5 F = 2.92
P = 0.08
(42.0–48.3) (41.3–48.0) (41.3–48.0)
44.2–47.2 43.7–46.7 43.9–47.1
OS-1 47.6 ± 4.0 45.7 ± 1.8 45.3 ± 1.5*
(42.6–50.0) (42.6–48.3) (43.3–48.0)
45.1–50.1 44.6–46.8 44.4–46.3
Hb
(g/dl)
Water 15.5 ± 1.2 15.4 ± 1.3 15.4 ± 1.2 F = 1.51
P = 0.24
(13.8–16.9) (13.7–17.3) (13.7–16.9)
14.8–16.2 14.6–16.2 14.6–16.1
OS-1 15.6 ± 1.1 15.2 ± 0.9 15.1 ± 0.9*
(14.0–17.0) (14.2–16.5) (13.5–16.4)
14.8–16.3 14.6–15.8 14.5–15.8
Osmolality
(mOsm/kg H2O)
Water 291.1 ± 4.9 285.3 ± 6.8* 288.6 ± 6.1 F = 5.27
P = 0.016#
(282–300) (277–300) (281–301)
288.0–294.1 281.1–289.5 284.8–292.4
OS-1 293.3 ± 6.2 294.2 ± 7.5 289.7 ± 3.8*
(282–301) (285–307) (285–296)
289.5–297.1 289.5–298.9 287.3–292.1
Sodium
(mmol/L)
Water 140.2 ± 1.9 137.9 ± 2.2* 138.8 ± 1.9 F = 0.92
P = 0.42
(137–143) (135–142) (137–140)
139.0–141.3 136.6–139.3 137.6–140.0
OS-1 140.7 ± 2.9 139.3 ± 4.6 139.1 ± 2.3*
(136–145) (138–146) (136–144)
138.9–142.5 136.5–142.1 137.6–140.6
Potassium
(mmol/L)
Water 4.6 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.5* F = 1.0
P = 3.87
(4.0–5.3) (4.1–5.1) (3.5–4.9)
4.3–4.8 4.2–4.8 3.8–4.5
OS-1 4.7 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 0.6*
(4.1–5.8) (4.0–5.9) (3.8–5.4)
4.3–5.1 4.3–5.1 4.0–4.8
Magnesium
(mmol/L)
Water 0.85 ± 0.04 0.82 ± 0.05* 0.84 ± 0.06 F = 1.85
P = 0.19
(0.78–0.91) (0.71–0.89) (0.70–0.94)
0.83–0.87 0.78–0.85 0.80–0.88
OS-1 0.89 ± 0.04 0.83 ± 0.04* 0.86 ± 0.05*
(0.83–0.96) (0.77–0.92) (0.78–0.93)
0.86–0.92 0.81–0.86 0.83–0.90
Chloride
(mmol/L)
Water 101.9 ± 2.0 100.0 ± 2.4* 100.3 ± 2.6 F = 16.8
P = 0.001#
(99–105) (96–104) (97–104)
100.6–103.2 98.5–101.5 98.7–101.9
OS-1 101.6 ± 2.7 102.7 ± 2.7 102.4 ± 2.0
(99–106) (99–107) (100–106)
99.9–103.3 101.0–104.4 101.2–103.6
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