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Table 1 Nutrients and substrates appeared and analyzed in the clusters

From: Structure and trends of international sport nutrition research between 2000 and 2018: bibliometric mapping of sport nutrition science


Nutrients and substrates

soccer and physiology

carbohydrates, glucose, anthocyanin

carbohydrate metabolism

proteins, carbohydrates, glucose, fructose

muscle physiology: alkalosis and acidosis

sodium-bicarbonate, carnosine, caffeine, beta-alanine,

muscle mass gain and dietary supplementation

creatine, beta-alanine, proteins, amino acids,

fluid balance and hydration

carbohydrates, sodium-bicarbonate, proteins

dietary intake and nutrition knowledge

beta-alanine, proteins

determination of energy need of athletes

carbohydrates, proteins, caffeine

bone health, female athlete triad


hydration strategy

carbohydrates, sodium-bicarbonate

body weight management

proteins, creatine

nutritional strategies and human skeletal muscle

carbohydrate, protein, sodium- bicarbonate, fructose

dietary supplementation of nitrates

dietary nitrates, beetroot juice, caffeine

oxidative stress and dietary supplement use

antioxidants, creatine, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E,

dietary supplement use and doping

creatin, caffeine, nitrate

oxidative stress, inflammation and dietary antioxidants

antioxidants, green tea, carnosine, beta-alanine, amino acids

exercise adaptation and nutritional strategies

carbohydrates, fats, beta-alanine

gut microbiota

protein, probiotics

celiac disease

creatine, sodium