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Table 3 Effects of grape supplementation on exercised-induced oxidative stress

From: Grape polyphenols supplementation for exercise-induced oxidative stress

Study Supplement form Polyphenolic content Dosage Participant characteristics Exercise protocol Sampling Results
Morillas-Ruiz et al., 2005 [81] Beverage made of black grape (81 g/l), raspberry (93 g/l) and red currant (39 g/l) Total phenolic content 1.41 mg/l (anthocyanins: 60%, hydroxycinnamic acid esters: 19%, ellagic acid: 13%, flavonols: 6% and stilbenes: 1%) 30 ml/kg (15 min pre-exercise) and 30 ml/kg every 15 min during a 90 min constant-load test Moderate trained cyclists (n = 30) Bicycle ergometer 90-min exercise at 70% VO2max Blood samples 30 min pre-exercise and 20 min post-exercise. Urine for 24-h. ↔ TBARS in either the placebo group or the test group; decreased ↓ carbonyls in the group receiving antioxidants; ↑ 8-OHdG in the placebo group
Goncalves, Bezerra, Cristina, Eleutherio, & Bouskela, 2011 [82] Organic grape juice 5.32 mg/ml polyphenols 300 ml/day for 20 days Trained male triathletes (n = 10) 30 km cycling, 7 km running, 2 km swimming per day for 20 days Blood samples before and after 20 days. Fasting 12 h and after 20 h exercise ↑ peak levels of serum insulin; ↑ plasma uric acid; ↑ functional capillary density; ↑ red blood cell velocity;↓ plasma glucose level; ↓SOD; ↓ time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia
Silvestre, Juzwiak, Gollücke, Dourado, & D’Almeida, 2014 [83] Grape concentrate drink Total phenolic content 45.8 g GAE / kg; 27.03 g Vitamin C / kg 300 ml (two doses) at breakfast and immediately after exercise Trained triathletes (n = 6) 100 km of cycling, 6 km of running and 1.5 km of swimming Fastin blood sample before, immediately after and 1 h after exercise. Overnight fasting ↑ SOD with both test drink and placebo; ↑ GSH greater after 1 h with placebo; ↑ TBARS higher with placebo; ↓ CAT with placebo after 1 h
Toscano et al. 2015 [84] Purple grape juice 1.82 g/l total phenolic compunds (52.58 mg/l total monomeric anthocyanins) 10 mL/kg/day in two doses/day for 28 days Recreationally active amateur runners (n = 28) A time-to-exhaustion exercise test, anaerobic threshold test, and aerobic capacity test were performed, together with assessments of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response, and muscle injury, performed at baseline and 48 h after the supplementation protocol Blood before, after 14 days and after 28 days. Fasting 12 h and after 48 h without training ↑ running time-to-exhaustion; no significant improvements in either anaerobic threshold or aerobic capacity; ↑ TAC; ↓ AGP; no effect in the immune response nor in the activity of CK and LDH
Tavares-Toscano et al., 2017 [85] Purple grape juice Total phenolic content (mg GAE/l) 1821 ± 101 10 ml/kg/day in two doses/day for 28 days Recreationally active street runners (n = 48 males and n = 5 females) Intense and continuous physical exercise Blood before and after 28 days. Both sampling: fasting 12 h and after 48 h without training ↑ TAC, ↔ glycaemic profile, ↓ LDL-cholesterol level, ↑ HDL-cholesterol level, ↓ systolic blood pressure, ↔ diastolic and mean blood pressures
de Lima Tavares-Toscano et al., 2019 [87] Purple grape juice Total phenolics (mg/l) 3106.6; Flavanols (mg/l) 13.0; Flavonols (mg/l) 5.3; Phenolic acids (mg/l) 83.8; Stilbenes (mg/l) 2.1 A single dose of 10 ml/kg/day Recreational male runners (n = 14) Running test at 80% VO2max until exhaustion Blood before (2 h after supplementation) and after exercise ↑ TAC; ↔ MDA, AGP, hs-CRP, CK, LDH
Sadowska-Krępa, Barbara Kłapcińska, & Kimsa, 2008 [88] Red grape skin extract The capsule contains 188 mg/g of polyphenols (catechin, gallic acid, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, cis-resveratrol); 35 mg/g of anthocyanidins (malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, delphinidin, cyanidin). 3 capsules of 390 mg /day for 6 weeks Physical education students (n = 14) Interval-type swimming test (free-style with moderate to high intensity) Blood sample before, after and 1 h after exercise. ↓ CK; ↔ antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR) activities; ↑ concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, UA) and TA status; ↑ swim speed at lower heart rate
Lafay et al., 2009 [91] Grape extract Total polyphenols (>  90%), total flavanols (>  50%), flavanols monomers and gallic acid (>  12%) 400 mg /day in two capsules at breakfast over 1 month Elite sportsmen (handball n = 10, basketball n = 5, sprint n = 4, and volleyball n = 1). Effort tests were conducted using the Optojump® system, which allows determining the total physical performance, explosive power, and fatigue. Blood and urine samples before and after 30 days (fasting > 10 h) ↑ ORAC at day 30; ↓ FRAP value in the placebo group but not in the test group; ↑ urinary isoprostane values in the placebo group but not in the test group; ↓CK ↑ hemoglobin levels in the test group; no differences in the effort test; differences in physical performance among sport disciplines
Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Basta, Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, & Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, 2010 [89] Grape derived product containing black wine grape peel and seed extract One capsule contains 188 mg/g of polyphenols (catechin, gallic acid, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, cis-resveratrol) and 35 mg/g of anthocyans (malvidin, peomidin, petunidin, delphinidin, cyanidin) One gelatin capsule/day of 367 mg for 6 weeks Trained male rowers (n = 22) Physical exercise test on the rowing ergometer; varying between 40 and 90% of maximal aerobic power Blood sample before, 1 min after the test completion and after 24 h ↑ TAC; insignificant increase in SOD; ↓ GPX; ↓lipid peroxidation product levels
Taghizadeh, Malekian, Memarzadeh, Mohammadi, & Asemi, 2016 [90] Grape seed extract No info 300 mg twice a day for 8 weeks Female volleyball players (n = 40) No specific test Blood before and after. Fasting 12 h ↑ GSH; ↓ MDA; ↓ insulin; ↓ homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); ↑ insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI); no significant effects on CK; TAC; NO; FPG and lipid concentrations
Cases et al., 2017 [92] An innovative polyphenol-based food supplement Bioactives 410 mg/1000 mg; Polyphenolic bioactives 290 mg/1000 mg; Caffeine 120 mg/100 mg 2 capsules of 500 mg, 60 min before the exercise protocol Recreationally active male athletes (n = 15) The Wingate test Blood before, after and at recovery period ↑ oxidative homeostasis; ↑SOD; ↑GSH; ↑CAT; ↑ total power output; ↑ maximal peak power output; ↑ average power developed; ↔ fatigue; ↔ heart rate; ↑ oxidative homeostasis
D’unienville et al., 2019 [93] Dried grapes with almonds and dried cranberries One product mix contains 560.3 mg of total polyphenols; 14.84 mg of flavonoids One product mix/day (2550 KJ/day of energy) for 4 weeks (75 g of raw, natural, unsalted almonds + 25 g of dried grapes (sultanas) + 25 g of dried cranberries) Trained male cyclists/triathletes (n = 96) Endurance exercise performance Blood and urine samples Results to be published
  1. VO2max maximal oxygen uptake, TBARS Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, 8-OHdG 8-hydroxy deoxy guanosine, SOD Superoxide dismutase, GSH Glutathione, CAT Catalase, TAC Total antioxidant capacity, AGP α1-acid glycoprotein, CK Creatine kinase, LDH Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL Low-density lipoproteins, HDL High-density lipoproteins, GR Glutathione reductase, UA Uric acid, TA Total antioxidant, ORAC Oxygen radical absorbance capacity, FRAP Ferric reducing ability of plasma, MDA Malondialdehyde, NO Nitric oxide, FPG Fasting plasma glucose