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Table 3 Results of Food-Frequency Questionnaire Based on Food Groups (FFQg)

From: Prevalence of iron deficiency among university kendo practitioners in Japan: an observational cohort study

Variables Male (n = 36) Female-Normoferritinemia (n = 10) Female-Hypoferritinemia (n = 7)56 p value
Male versus Female Normo-ferritinemia Male versus Female Hypo-ferritinemia Female-Normo- versus Hypo-ferritinemia
Energy (Kcal) 2343.5 [1873–2892] 1784.5 [1366–2062.75] 1269 [1015–2041] < 0.05 < 0.01 n.s.
Water (g/d) 1222.4 [827.45–1308.25] 749 [552.15–1058.375] 642.7 [418.3–816.5] < 0.05 < 0.01 n.s.
Protein (g/d) 74.5 [55.55–83.6] 62.85 [43.9–69.4] 37.8 [34.4–68.6] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
Fat (g/d) 62.35 [46.125–77.125] 67.2 [50.25–71.675] 53.6 [36.1–79] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Carbohydrate (g/d) 360.2 [251.275–435.825] 221.95 [188.775–273.125] 156 [110.8–277.7] < 0.01 < 0.01 n.s.
Ash (g/d) 15.2 [12.675–17.275] 12.85 [10.475–17.6] 10.1 [7.7–14.8] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Na (mg/d) 3601 [2651–4333.25] 2753.5 [2451–3606] 2478 [1931–3128] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
K (mg/d) 1981 [1594.75–2375.75] 1744.5 [1316.75–2641.5] 1291 [872–2024] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Ca (mg/d) 485.5 [400.25–583.75] 500 [338.25–575.5] 333 [250–523] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Mg (mg/d) 247 [185.5–280.75] 196 [162.5–305.75] 135 [106–229] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
P (mg/d) 1042 [759.5–1161.25] 967 [603–1126.25] 578 [488–1015] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Fe (mg/d) 7.35 [5.375–8.6] 6.7 [4.85–9.35] 4.4 [3.4–7.4] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Zn (mg/d) 8.95 [7.3–11] 7.35 [5.55–9] 4.2 [4–8] n.s. < 0.01 n.s.
Cu (mg/d) 1.25 [0.995–1.4075] 0.885 [0.6925–1.3825] 0.52 [0.45–1.04] n.s. < 0.01 n.s.
Mn (mg/d) 3.115 [2.39–3.8] 1.995 [1.6175–3.2] 1.13 [0.8–2.27] < 0.05 < 0.01 n.s.
Iodine (μg/d) 394 [243.5–724.5] 432 [197.25–988.5] 249 [101–618] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Se (μg/d) 69 [49.25–78] 58.5 [40–68.5] 40 [31–67] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Cr (μg/d) 6 [4–7] 6.5 [3.75–8.25] 5 [3–7] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Mo (μg/d) 208.5 [145.75–286] 137.5 [111.5–195] 68 [39–148] n.s. < 0.01 n.s.
Retinol (μg/d) 162 [110.25–240.75] 167.5 [94.5–268.25] 164 [106–228] n.s. n.s. n.s.
β-Carotene (μg/d) 1820 [1189.25–2660] 2319 [873–3028.5] 2074 [1068–2357] n.s. n.s. n.s.
β-Carotene equivalent (μg/d) 2080.25 [1350.475–3059.675] 2942.6 [1034.025–3397.6] 2343.1 [1307.2–2763.7] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Vitamin D (μg/d) 3.6 [2.15–5.475] 3.4 [2.1–5] 1.9 [1.7–4.6] n.s. n.s. n.s.
αTocopherol (mg/d) 6.65 [4.7–8.2] 6 [4.725–7.725] 4.8 [2.7–7.1] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Vitamin K (μg/d) 150.6 [111.025–180.7] 157.95 [106.25–265.65] 159.5 [61.2–186.6] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Vitamin B1 (mg/d) 1.2 [0.825–1.4] 0.9 [0.675–1.075] 0.6 [0.5–1] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
Vitamin B2 (mg/d) 1 [1–1] 1 [1–1] 1 [1–1] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Niacin (mg/d) 14.615 [10.5125–17.1225] 10.9 [9.11–13.78] 8.26 [5.86–12.3] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
Niacin equivalent (mg/d) 27.755 [20.72–33.2175] 23.145 [17.2375–27.385] 15.5 [12.58–24.84] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.1 [0.8–1.2] 0.9 [0.675–1.175] 0.7 [0.4–1] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
Vitamin B12 (μg/d) 3.415 [2.4175–5.13] 3.64 [2.365–4.035] 2 [1.21–4.72] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Folic acid (μg/d) 204.45 [150.45–263.65] 220 [138.5–336.65] 174.6 [97.6–237.4] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Pantothenic acid (mg/d) 6.3 [4.8–6.945] 5.565 [3.56–6.5275] 3.46 [2.79–5.78] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Biotin (μg/d) 26.745 [23.9525–32.4075] 31.125 [19.03–41.8825] 23.02 [18.48–35.83] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Vitamin C (mg/d) 46 [35–71.25] 52.5 [30.5–87.75] 40 [23–56] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Saturated fatty acids (g/d) 18.215 [14.3775–25.56] 20.865 [18.44–24.8] 19.8 [11.03–24.9] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Monounsaturated fatty acids (g/d) 23.3 [16.525–27.425] 23.365 [17.835–24.6425] 18.29 [13.25–27.98] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g/d) 12.41 [10.1175–14.6375] 12.255 [8.6125–15.13] 9.98 [6.28–14.49] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Cholesterol (μg/d) 315.5 [240.5–388.75] 372 [239.25–456.5] 291 [288–482] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Soluble fiber (g/d) 2.7 [1.9–3.375] 2.45 [1.8–3.7] 1.8 [1.1–2.7] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Insoluble fiber (g/d) 9.3 [6.325–10.7] 7.1 [5.375–10.85] 5.7 [3–8.1] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Total fiber (g/d) 12.75 [9.35–15.4] 9.9 [7.825–15.55] 7.5 [4.3–11.5] n.s. < 0.05 n.s.
NaCl (g/d) 9.1 [6.75–11.025] 6.95 [6.25–9.125] 6.3 [4.9–7.9] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Ethanol (g/d) 3.07 [0.23–11.93] 2.39 [0.11–4.01] 3.07 [0.46–7.39] n.s. n.s. n.s.
Total Fat (g/d) 54.62 [40.3825–67.275] 58.88 [45.795–62.215] 48.1 [32–68.51] n.s. n.s. n.s.
n-3 fatty acids (g/d) 1.74 [1.4025–2.4925] 1.725 [1.26–2.1125] 1.22 [0.87–2.04] n.s. n.s. n.s.
n-6 fatty acids (g/d) 10.8 [8.55–12.175] 10.5 [7.425–12.9] 8.7 [5.4–12.4] n.s. n.s. n.s.
  1. Three male participants missed the FFQg. Data are shown as median [lower and upper interquartile range]. P values with the Kruskal Wallis test are shown