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Table 7 Investigations examining the effects of caffeinated bars and gels on exercise performance

From: International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance

Author Participants Protocol Results
Hogervorst et al. 2008 [82] Well-trained male cyclists (n = 24) Bar with 100 mg caffeine and 45.0 g CHO
• Bar with only 45.0 g CHO
• 300 mL non-caloric beverage
*↑Stroop and Rapid Visual Information Processing tests after 140 min and time to exhaustion exercise trial at 75% VO2max
Cooper et al. 2014 [83] Recreationally trained males (n = 12) Gel with 100 mg caffeine and 25.0 g CHO
• Gel with 25 g CHO
• Gel placebo
*↓ fatigue and RPE during 3rd sprint set
NS: sprint performance
Scott et al. 2015 [84] Male college athletes (n = 13) Gel with 21.6 g CHO and 100 mg caffeine
• Gel with 21.6 g CHO
*↑ performance in 2000 m rowing task
Venier et al. 2019 [67, 68] Resistance-trained men (n = 17) Gel with 88 g CHO and 300 mg caffeine
• Gel with 88 g CHO
*↑ jumping height
*↑ isokinetic strength and power
*↑ movement velocity in the bench press
NS: whole-body power output
  1. Bold text associated with reported trial outcomes; mg = milligrams, g = grams, CHO = carbohydrate, * = significant, NS = non-significant difference, VST = visual sensitivity test, ↑ = improved performance, ↓ = decreased, m = meters, RPE = rating of perceived exertion, mL = milliliters