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Table 2 Summary of studies that explored the effects of caffeine on exercise performance in the heat

From: International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance

Author Participants Protocol Outcome
Cohen et al. 1996 [362] Endurance trained competitive road racers (male = 5; female = 2) • Placebo
5 mg/kg caffeine
9 mg/kg caffeine
⬌ Running performance
Del Coso et al. 2008 [363] Endurance trained male cyclists (n = 7) • No fluid
• Water
• 6%CHO Solution
No fluid + 6 mg/kg caffeine capsule
Water + 6 mg/kg caffeine capsule
6%CHO solution + 6 mg/kg caffeine capsule
⬌ Maximal voluntary contraction in heat
*↑ Maximal cycling power in heat
*↑ Maximal leg force via voluntary activation ONLY in water + caffeine and 6%CHO + caffeine
Cheuvront et al. 2009 [364] Healthy males (n = 10) 9.0 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
⬌ TT performance
⬌ RPE
Ganio et al. 2011 [365] Male cyclists (n = 11) • Participants consumed either 3 mg/kg caffeine or placebo 60 min prior to and after 45 min of the following trials (4 trials total; total 6 mg/kg):
• Warm environment (33 °C): 90 min cycling followed by 15 min performance trial
• Cool environment (12 °C): 90 min cycling followed by 15 min performance trial
Caffeine *↑ increased performance versus placebo independent of temperature
Roelands et al. 2011 [265] Trained male cyclists or triathletes (n = 8) 6 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
⬌ Acute cycling TT performance
Pitchford et al. 2014 [366] Well-trained males (n = 9) 3 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
⬌cycling TT performance in heat
Suvi et al. 2017 [359] Healthy males (n = 13) and females (n = 10) 6 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
⬌ Time to walking exhaustion
Beaumont et al. 2017 [310, 367] Recreationally active males (n = 8) 6 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
*↑ Endurance cycle performance in heat
*↓ RPE during initial 60 min of exercise
  1. Outcomes are bold caffeine group specific; * = significant difference, ⬌ = no change, ↑ = improved performance, TT = time trial, mg/kg = milligram per kilogram, CHO = carbohydrate, min = minutes, RPE = rating of perceived exertion