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Table 3 Changes in plasma cytokine concentrations during exercise and recovery following caffeine supplementation

From: Caffeine supplementation induces higher IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels in response to a treadmill exercise test

  Pre-exercise Post-exercise Recovery Main effect p-values
(T; C; TxC)
IL-8 (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo 48.6 ± 4.1 59.1 ± 5.0 50.2 ± 4.6 < 0.001 a; 0.475; 0.290
 Caffeine 49.8 ± 4.6 63.7 ± 4.4 48.6 ± 3.6
IL-1β (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo 17.1 ± 2.7 17.4 ± 2.7 14.6 ± 3.2 0.217; 0.600; 0.293
 Caffeine 16.6 ± 2.7 19.6 ± 3.0 14.8 ± 1.8
IL-12 (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo 91.9 ± 6.6 113.1 ± 9.5 91.4 ± 15.1 0.007 a; 0.563; 0.742
 Caffeine 91.6 ± 7.8 117.7 ± 9.0 77.4 ± 4.4
IL-1ra (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo 2.21 ± 0.35 2.58 ± 0.52 2.30 ± 0.33 0.026 a; 0.577; 0.307
 Caffeine 2.28 ± 0.40 2.63 ± 0.34 2.18 ± 0.55
IL-4 (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo 1.74 ± 0.20 1.96 ± 0.21 1.56 ± 0.16 < 0.001 a; 0.522; 0.070
 Caffeine 1.60 ± 0.15 2.24 ± 0.24 1.60 ± 0.18
IFN-γ (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo 5.28 ± 0.41 6.10 ± 0.51 5.07 ± 0.67 0.015 a; 0.493; 0.587
 Caffeine 4.73 ± 0.44 6.03 ± 0.23 4.86 ± 0.27
  1. The values are the mean ± S.D. (n = 13)
  2. T time (pre-exercise, post-exercise, recovery), C condition (placebo, caffeine), TxC interaction time x condition. Main effect for time
  3. aindicates significant differences post-exercise vs. pre-exercise