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Table 2 Changes in blood cell counts, plasma caffeine levels and cAMP during exercise and recovery following caffeine supplementation

From: Caffeine supplementation induces higher IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels in response to a treadmill exercise test

  Pre-exercise Post-exercise Recovery Main effect p-values
(T; C; TxC)
Caffeine (μg·mL− 1)
 Placebo n.d. n.d. n.d. < 0.001 < 0.001; < 0.001 a,b
 Caffeine n.d. 8.99 ± 1.80 * 8.38 ± 2.40 *
AMPc (μg·mL−1)
 Placebo 126.5 ± 15.5 174.5 ± 15.4 131.8 ± 19.2 < 0.001 a; 0.327; 0.742
 Caffeine 126.2 ± 17.4 178.8 ± 23.6 137.6 ± 21.4
Leukocytes (103·μL− 1)
 Placebo 6.21 ± 1.43 8.30 ± 1.68 8.80 ± 2.58 < 0.001; 0.002; 0.048 a,b
 Caffeine 6.66 ± 1.69 9.86 ± 2.51 * 10.2 ± 3.2 *
Neutrophils (103·μL− 1)
 Placebo 3.20 ± 0.68 4.51 ± 0.90 6.16 ± 1.83 < 0.001 a,b; 0.002; 0.175
 Caffeine 3.72 ± 1.08 5.64 ± 1.61 7.63 ± 2.38
Lymphocytes (103·μL− 1)
 Placebo 2.27 ± 0.53 3.00 ± 0.69 1.89 ± 0.40 < 0.001; 0.262; 0.006 a,b,c
 Caffeine 2.33 ± 0.49 3.34 ± 0.78 * 1.80 ± 0.36
Monocytes (103·μL− 1)
 Placebo 0.50 ± 0.11 0.54 ± 0.14 0.54 ± 0.14 0.028 a; 0.383; 0.287
 Caffeine 0.47 ± 0.09 0.59 ± 0.20 0.58 ± 0.21
  1. The values are the mean ± S.D. (n = 13)
  2. T time (pre-exercise, post-exercise, recovery), C condition (placebo, caffeine), TxC interaction time x condition
  3. *indicates significant differences between conditions at that time point
  4. aindicates significant differences post-exercise vs. pre-exercise
  5. bindicates significant differences recovery vs. pre-exercise
  6. cindicates significant differences recovery vs. post-exercise