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Table 3 Frequently avoided foods pre-race by performance level

From: Dietary restrictions in endurance runners to mitigate exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms

Foods AvoidedLower Recreational n(%)Upper Recreational n(%)Competitive n(%)p-value
Meat30 (24)71 (34)14 (41).061
Milk products26 (25)56 (31)14 (47).085
Fish/seafood23 (18)67 (33)13 (38).007
Poultry22 (18)59 (28)8 (24).082
High-fiber25 (19)51 (24)12 (35).148
Chocolate22 (17)57 (27)5 (15).068
Legumes18 (14)41 (19)10 (30).101
Coffee or tea25 (20)42 (20)1 (3).031
Energy drinks15 (12)37 (18)8 (24).181
Starchy vegetable19 (15)33 (16)5 (15)1.000
Lactose-free milk11 (9)34 (16)7 (21).077
Eggs11 (9)33 (16)5 (15).154
Soy milk13 (10)30 (14)5 (15).564
Sports drink10 (8)29 (14)3 (9).270
Vegetables6 (5)27 (13)7 (21).007
Cold cereal7 (6)31 (15)3 (9).021
Coconut milk9 (7)27 (13)6 (18).123
Almond milk8 (6)27 (13)5 (15).120
  1. Foods commonly avoided pre-racing by performance level. Individuals with a self-declared intolerance to a food category were removed from the analysis for that food. Lower recreational includes those who selected “don’t compete” and “lower recreational”. Percentages represent the frequency of individuals from each category who report avoiding the food. Differences between groups were determined by a Fisher’s exact test. Significant differences p < .05 are bolded