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Table 3 Serum 25(OH)D levels and biochemical markers of muscle damaged of the subjects

From: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum total 25(OH) levels and biochemical markers of skeletal muscles in runners

VariablesGroupPre-InterventionPost-InterventionEffect sizep-valueMean difference (%)CI −95%CI + 95%
25(OH)rest [ng/ml]EXP34.9 ± 4.740.3 ± 4.9*0.69 / Moderate0.02−3.9 (− 10.7%)−7.03− 0.72
CON33.9 ± 4.831.8 ± 4.20.46 / Small0.132.1 (6.2%)−0.684.88
25(OH)max [ng/ml]EXP36.5 ± 3.344.9 ± 4.91.64 / Large< 0.001−7.7 (−20.9%)− 11.14−4.30
CON34.7 ± 8.139.2 ± 7.60.57 / Small0.13−4.5 (−13.0%)−10.571.55
25(OH)D1 h [ng/ml]EXP40.0 ± 8.8**45.5 ± 4.7*0.52 / Small0.22−3.9 (−9.4%)− 10.442.70
CON33.3 ± 3.438.5 ± 9.70.71 / Moderate0.04−5.2 (−15.6%)−10.11−0.29
25(OH)D24h [ng/ml]EXP36.2 ± 6.2*41.2 ± 5.0*0.76 / Moderate0.04−4.6 (−12.5%)−9.00−0.14
CON30.0 ± 6.435.7 ± 6.90.87 / Moderate0.02−5.8 (− 19.4%)−10.63−0.99
TN rest [ng/ml]EXP2.9 ± 1.9**2.0 ± 1.6*0.77 / Moderate0.121.7 (45.3%)−0.513.82
CON7.2 ± 2.05.6 ± 4.20.61 / Moderate0.203.0 (35.2%)−1.827.85
TN max [ng/ml]EXP5.1 ± 1.7***2.7 ± 1.6***1.44 / Large0.0042.4 (47.4%)0.943.94
CON8.9 ± 6.35.3 ± 4.11.38 / Large0.027.6 (59.3%)1.7313.56
TN 1 h [ng/ml]EXP4.9 ± 2.02.9 ± 2.00.98 / Moderate0.032.0 (40.8%)0.183.84
CON4.4 ± 3.24.7 ± 2.40.09 / Trivial0.82−0.3 (− 5.8%)−2.632.12
TN 24 h [ng/ml]EXP6.3 ± 3.73.7 ± 1.20.82 / Moderate0.082.6 (40.7%)−0.335.47
CON4.7 ± 1.23.1 ± 1.20.47 / Small0.281.6 (33.5%)−1.494.65
MB rest [ng/ml]EXP44.7 ± 23.140.6 ± 17.60.19 / Trivial0.714.1 (9.2%)−19.3627.58
CON44.4 ± 11.837.1 ± 21.80.39 / Small0.437.2 (16.3%)−12.1126.54
MB max [ng/ml]EXP73.9 ± 32.058.7 ± 27.60.49 / Small0.1615.2 (20.6%)−7.1237.52
CON93.4 ± 33.173.5 ± 43.70.49 / Small0.2919.9 (21.3%)−19.8459.67
MB 1 h [ng/ml]EXP173.6 ± 104.592.6 ± 48.90.96 / Moderate0.0181.5 (47.0%)24.69138.35
CON102.6 ± 59.583.9 ± 50.00.32 / Small0.4718.6 (18.2%)−36.6073.82
MB 24 h [ng/ml]EXP93.2 ± 56.259.5 ± 37.80.67 / Moderate0.1533.7 (36.2%)−14.1781.60
CON98.3 ± 26.793.0 ± 50.70.13 / Trivial0.725.3 (5.4%)−26.3137.01
CK rest [U/l]EXP151.0 ± 59.5*166.4 ± 100.00.19 / Trivial0.58−15.4 (− 10.2%)−75.5744.72
CON234.2 ± 88.9248.4 ± 179.00.1 / Trivial0.81−14.1 (−6.0%)− 143.10114.84
CK max [U/l]EXP226.1 ± 141.0212.7 ± 112.00.1 / Trivial0.7813.4 (5.9%)−87.82114.67
CON276.2 ± 118.2286.6 ± 191.50.06 / Trivial0.87−10.4 (−3.8%)− 152.70131.84
CK 1 h [U/l]EXP248.0 ± 161.8214.3 ± 109.00.23 / Small0.4633.7 (13.6%)−63.22130.62
CON276.8 ± 122.3213.2 ± 113.40.52 / Small0.1663.5 (22.9%)−29.34156.39
CK 24 h [U/l]EXP361.3 ± 238.9243.3 ± 91.5*0.55 / Small0.2097.7 (28.1%)−59.56255.03
CON434.3 ± 143.9332.0 ± 155.61.17 / Moderate0.05143.1 (32.9%)64.74221.49
LDH rest [U/l]EXP337.1 ± 73.5333.1 ± 80.50.05 / Trivial0.824.0 (1.2%)−34.6042.60
CON339.4 ± 47.8333.1 ± 60.10.11 / Trivial0.696.2 (1.8%)−27.3039.74
LDH max [U/l]EXP400.5 ± 108.0395.9 ± 68.60.18 / Trivial0.5417.5 (4.4%)−44.2579.36
CON401.4 ± 63.8413.5 ± 79.60.16 / Trivial0.33−12.1 (−3.0%)−38.2514.04
LDH 1 h [U/l]EXP361.4 ± 87.8354.2 ± 69.40.21 / Small0.3718.3 (5.1%)−25.2561.88
CON355.0 ± 44.9368.6 ± 72.20.22 / Small0.35−13.6 (−3.8%)−43.9916.86
LDH 24 h [U/l]EXP344.9 ± 75.5313.5 ± 66.60.02 / Trivial0.94−1.8 (−0.5%)−51.3347.68
CON339.1 ± 56.8321.1 ± 31.10.07 / Trivial0.744.1 (1.2%)−21.8729.99
TNFα rest [pg/ml]EXP9.7 ± 5.75.6 ± 2.60.88 / Moderate0.094.1 (42.2%)−0.758.93
CON13.7 ± 7.412.5 ± 4.40.19 / Trivial0.651.2 (8.9%)−4.526.96
TNFα max [pg/ml]EXP23.9 ± 15.210.5 ± 4.61.14 / Moderate0.0113.4 (56.2%)3.4823.40
CON22.9 ± 13.722.7 ± 17.40.01 / Trivial0.970.2 (0.8%)−12.612.98
TNF α 1 h [pg/ml]EXP21.9 ± 16.88.4 ± 3.71.06 / Moderate0.0313.5 (61.7%)1.7425.26
CON18.7 ± 11.421.3 ± 12.20.21 / Small0.65−2.6 (−13.9%)−14.919.69
TNF α 24 h [pg/ml]EXP19.8 ± 14.211.6 ± 5.70.73 / Moderate0.028.2 (41.6%)1.5514.94
CON13.9 ± 6.713.7 ± 7.30.02 / Trivial0.950.1 (1.1%)−5.565.87
IL-6 rest [pg/ml]EXP1.4 ± 1.31.9 ± 1.80.25 / Small0.23−0.3 (−18.7%)−0.740.20
CON1.5 ± 1.32.1 ± 1.60.49 / Small0.10−0.6 (−44.1%)−1.420.15
IL-6 max [pg/ml]EXP2.0 ± 1.91.7 ± 1.00.29 / Small0.390.33 (16.1%)−0.491.15
CON2.7 ± 1.52.5 ± 2.30.01 / Trivial0.98−0.01 (− 0.4%)−1.181.16
IL-6 1 h [pg/ml]EXP2.7 ± 2.32.3 ± 1.30.22 / Small0.590.39 (14.4%)−1.141.92
CON3.1 ± 2.03.0 ± 2.00.02 / Trivial0.95−0.04 (−1.5%)−1.401.32
IL-6 24 h [pg/ml]EXP1.8 ± 1.21.0 ± 0.9**0.72 / Moderate0.110.79 (43.5%)−0.201.77
CON2.0 ± 1.22.4 ± 1.60.26 / Small0.46−0.3 (−14.9%)−1.170.57
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 significant differences between vitamin D supplemented group (EXP) and placebo control group (CON)