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Table 3 Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceptions of gastrointestinal symptoms during the 120-min submaximal exercise (n = 12)

From: Effects of supplementing with an 18% carbohydrate-hydrogel drink versus a placebo during whole-body exercise in −5 °C with elite cross-country ski athletes: a crossover study

 PLACHO-HGTwo-way ANOVA P value (pη2)
Mean ± SDRange (min–max)Mean ± SDRange (min–max)TimeTrialInteraction
RPE13.2 ± 0.911–1613.3 ± 0.810–15< 0.0001 (0.435)0.777 (0.008)0.205 (0.120)
Gasa2.5 ± 2.70–113.4 ± 3.00–120.014 (0.307)0.110 (0.215)0.235 (0.124)
Nauseaa1.6 ± 2.20–102.2 ± 3.20–140.135 (0.171)0.511 (0.040)0.681 (0.028)
Stomach rumblinga2.7 ± 1.90–82.2 ± 2.00–70.069 (0.205)0.182 (0.156)0.042 (0.185)
Abdominal paina2.5 ± 2.70–113.5 ± 3.30–140.009 (0.376)0.282 (0.104)0.258 (0.116)
Urgency to have a bowel movementa2.7 ± 3.00–122.4 ± 2.70–100.017 (0.336)0.394 (0.067)0.886 (0.016)
Level of digestive comfortb14.6 ± 3.08–1914.9 ± 2.79–200.011 (0.360)0.656 (0.019)0.482 (0.061)
  1. a0 = no symptoms, 20 = worst conceivable symptoms; b0 = extremely uncomfortable, 20 = extremely comfortable (10 = neutral); pη2 partial Eta-square. Significant P-value (< 0.05) is displayed in bold