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Table 4 Dietary restrictions while racing reasons for avoiding foods and gastrointestinal symptoms while training

From: Development of a questionnaire to assess dietary restrictions runners use to mitigate gastrointestinal symptoms

Variable % Observed Agreement Kappa 95% CI PABAK PI BI
Foods Avoided
 Gluten free grain/cereal 94.74 .64 .17–1.00 .89 .84 .00
 Water 97.37 .66 .03–1.00 .95 .92 .03
 Grains 89.47 .65 .34–.96 .79 .63 .05
 Meat 86.84 .69 0.44–.94 .74 .39 .03
 Sports bar/gel 92.11 .63 .25–1.00 .84 .76 .08
 Starchy vegetable 89.47 .54 .15–.93 .79 .74 .05
 Poultry 94.74 .84 .63–1.00 .89 .58 .00
 Sports drink 94.74 .80 .54–1.00 .89 .68 .05
 Cold breakfast cereal 92.11 .62 .23–1.00 .84 .76 .03
 Fish/seafood 89.47 .73 .48–.98 .79 .47 .00
 Juice 92.11 .75 .49–1.00 .84 .61 .03
 Hot cereal 97.37 .79 .38–1.00 .95 .87 .03
 Nuts 94.74 .64 .19–1.00 .89 .84 .05
 Fruit/vegetable smoothie 94.74 .77 .46–1.00 .89 .74 .00
 Milk products 89.47 .78 .58–.98 .79 .26 .11
 Eggs 94.74 .80 .54–1.00 .89 .68 .05
 Coffee or tea 89.47 .77 .55–.98 .79 .32 .00
 Fruit 97.37 .79 .38–1.00 .95 .87 .03
 Energy drinks 89.47 .73 .48–.98 .79 .47 .00
 Almond milk 94.74 .64 .17–1.00 .89 .84 .00
 Vegetables 94.74 .77 .47–1.00 .89 .74 .05
 Chocolate 84.21 .53 .19–.86 .68 .58 .00
 Coconut milk 97.37 .84 .54–1.00 .95 .82 .03
 High fiber foods 92.11 .72 .43–1.00 .84 .66 .03
 Soy milk 97.37 .89 .69–1.00 .95 .71 .03
 Don’t avoid foods 86.84 .65 .37–.93 .74 .50 .03
Reasons for Avoiding Foods
 Routine 94.59 .72 .36–1.00 .89 .78 .05
 Experience 83.78 .67 .44–.91 .68 .08 .00
 Personal preference 94.59 .87 .70–1.00 .89 .41 .05
 Advice 97.30 .84 .54–1.00 .95 .81 .03
 Superstition 94.59 .00 .00–1.00 .89 .95 .05
Symptoms Experienced
 Stomach pain/cramps 86.84 .74 .54–.95 .74 .03 .13
 Diarrhea 92.11 .80 .59–1.00 .84 .45 .03
 Burping/belching 94.74 .47 −.15–1.00 .89 .89 .00
 Nausea/vomiting 89.47 .54 .14–.94 .79 .74 .00
 Side ache/stitch 89.47 .75 .51–.98 .79 .42 .05
 Intestinal issues 81.58 .51 .19–.83 .63 .50 .03
 Urge to defecate 78.95 .47 .18–.77 .58 .47 .16
Gas 81.58 .37 .02–.72 .63 .66 .13
 Reflux/heart burn 89.47 .71 .45–.97 .79 .53 .05
 Bloating 81.58 .59 .32–.86 .63 .34 .08
 Fullness/heaviness 92.11 .68 .35–1.00 .84 .71 .03
 No symptoms 97.37 .84 .54–1.00 .95 .82 .03
  1. Kappa unadjusted kappa, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, PABAK prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa, PI prevalence index, BI bias index. Reliability for questions regarding pre-training was determined using a kappa statistic or PABAK. Avoid legumes, avoid lactose-free milk and symptoms bleeding had 100% agreement. Responses that did not meet the reliability criteria are bolded