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Table 3 Summary of categorization of dietary supplements based on available literature

From: ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations

Category

Muscle building supplements

Performance enhancement

I. Strong Evidence to Support Efficacy and Apparently Safe

• HMB

• Creatine monohydrate

• Essential amino acids (EAA)

• Protein

• β-alanine

• Caffeine

• Carbohydrate

• Creatine Monohydrate

• Sodium Bicarbonate

• Sodium Phosphate

• Water and Sports Drinks

II. Limited or Mixed Evidence to Support Efficacy

• Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate (ATP)

• Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)

• Phosphatidic acid

• L-Alanyl-L-Glutamate

• Arachidonic acid

• Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)

• Citrulline

• Essential amino acids (EAA)

• Glycerol

• HMB

• Nitrates

• Post-exercise carbohydrate and protein

• Quercetin

• Taurine

III. Little to No Evidence to Support Efficacy and/or Safety

• Agmatine sulfate

• Alpha-ketoglutarate

• Arginine

• Boron

• Chromium

• Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA)

• D-Aspartic acid

• Ecdysterones

• Fenugreek extract

• Gamma oryzanol (Ferulic acid)

• Glutamine

• Growth-hormone releasing peptides and Secretogogues

• Isoflavones

• Ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate

• Prohomones

• Sulfo-polysaccharides

Tribulus terrestris

• Vanadyl sulfate

• Zinc-magnesium aspartate

• Arginine

• Carnitine

• Glutamine

• Inosine

• Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)

• Ribose