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Table 4 Comparison of cortisol, insulin and creatine kinase (CK) before (0’), the end (60’) and 30 min after the end (90) of three interventions in time trial

From: The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on performance, biochemical and psychophysiological variables during a cycling time trial: a crossover randomized trial

Variables Interventions 0’ 60’ 90’ p a p b p c
Cortisol (μg/dL) CMR 11.2 ± 4.3* 17.0 ± 8.32 18.8 ± 6.5 0.056 0.566 0.047
PMR 8.5 ± 3.7* 17.0 ± 6.73 17.5 ± 5.9    
DAL 11.5 ± 7.5 18.2 ± 8.39 17.7 ± 6.3    
Insulin (uIL/mL) CMR 10.1 ± 7.3 9.2 ± 5.67 10.1 ± 6.3** 0.175 0.023 0.668
PMR 6.2 ± 2.6 7.4 ± 5.10 8.2 ± 7.07    
DAL 11.1 ± 13.1 12.5 ± 10.0 13.1 ± 12.1**    
CK (U/L) CMR 192.8 ± 132.1 237.6 ± 159.0 208.1 ± 144.6 0.492 0.403 0.117
PMR 248.5 ± 122.9 304.0 ± 120.6 274 ± 111.8    
DAL 208.2 ± 75.4 225.3 ± 52.9 210.8 ± 60.8    
  1. Values expressed in Mean ± SD; Analyzed data according to GEE
  2. CMR carbohydrate mouth rinsing, PMR placebo mouth rinsing, DAL drinking ad libitum
  3. atime; b treatment; c interaction time * treatment; Bonferroni Post hoc: *p = 0.03; **p = 0.01