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Table 4 Associations between supplement use and performance-related reasons for supplementation

From: Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes

Supplement Muscle Mass/Strength (38 %) Endurance (31 %) Increase Energy (55 %) Overall Athletic Performance (49 %) Recovery (49 %)
Multi-vitamin/Multi-mineral (67 %) χ 2= 11.965
p= 0.001
V = 0.146
χ 2 = 8.469
p = 0.004
V = 0.123
χ 2 = 0.203
p = 0.652
V = 0.019
χ 2 = 6.370
p = 0.012
V = 0.106
χ 2 = 5.773
p = 0.016
V = 0.101
Vitamin C (66 %) χ 2 = 7.688
p = 0.006
V = 0.117
χ 2 = 5.278
p = 0.022
V = 0.097
χ 2 = 2.580
p = 0.108
V = 0.068
χ 2 = 4.662
p = 0.031
V = 0.091
χ 2 = 3.046
p = 0.081
V = 0.073
B Vitamins (32 %) χ 2= 11.002
p= 0.001
V = 0.140
χ 2= 20.610
p< 0.001
V = 0.191
χ 2 = 6.675
p = 0.010
V = 0.109
χ 2= 11.867
p= 0.001
V = 0.145
χ 2 = 1.487
p = 0.223
V = 0.051
Vitamin E (26 %) χ 2= 25.084
p< 0.001
V = 0.211
χ 2= 27.410
p< 0.001
V = 0.221
χ 2= 10.883
p= 0.001
V = 0.139
χ 2= 18.510
p< 0.001
V = 0.181
χ 2 = 2.257
p = 0.133
V = 0.063
Vitamin D (48 %) χ 2 = 9.013
p = 0.003
V = 0.127
χ 2= 12.488
p< 0.001
V = 0.149
χ 2 = 0.619
p = 0.431
V = 0.033
χ 2 = 2.629
p = 0.105
V = 0.068
χ 2 = 0.616
p = 0.433
V = 0.033
Vitamin- enriched Water (65 %) χ 2 = 5.594
p = 0.018
V = 0.100
χ 2= 10.919
p= 0.001
V = 0.139
χ 2= 13.372
p< 0.001
V = 0.154
χ 2= 17.511
p< 0.001
V = 0.176
χ 2 = 4.535
p = 0.033
V = 0.090
Iron (27 %) χ 2 = 6.234
p = 0.013
V = 0.105
χ 2 = 7.387
p = 0.007
V = 0.114
χ 2 = 6.574
p = 0.010
V = 0.108
χ 2 = 7.795
p = 0.005
V = 0.117
χ 2 = 0.223
p = 0.637
V = 0.020
Calcium (43 %) χ 2= 25.438
p< 0.001
V = 0.212
χ 2= 10.571
p= 0.001
V = 0.137
χ 2 = 9.816
p = 0.002
V = 0.132
χ 2= 10.204
p= 0.001
V = 0.134
χ 2 = 3.097
p = 0.078
V = 0.074
Magnesium (17 %) χ 2= 11.060
p= 0.001
V = 0.140
χ 2= 16.037
p< 0.001
V = 0.169
χ 2 = 7.193
p = 0.007
V = 0.113
χ 2 = 7.827
p = 0.005
V = 0.118
χ 2 = 5.510
p = 0.019
V = 0.099
Protein Powder (51 %) χ 2= 120.609
p< 0.001
V = 0.462
χ 2= 27.927
p< 0.001
V = 0.223
χ 2= 12.172
p< 0.001
V = 0.147
χ 2= 47.946
p< 0.001
V = 0.292
χ 2= 51.470
p< 0.001
V = 0.302
BCAA (8 %) χ 2= 21.995
p< 0.001
V = 0.198
χ 2= 14.313
p< 0.001
V = 0.159
χ 2 = 7.943
p = 0.005
V = 0.119
χ 2= 16.010
p< 0.001
V = 0.169
χ 2 = 3.392
p = 0.065
V = 0.078
Beta-alanine (4 %) χ 2 = 3.440
p = 0.064
V = 0.078
χ 2 = 5.451
p = 0.020
V = 0.098
χ 2 = 3.095
p = 0.079
V = 0.074
χ 2 = 2.462
p = 0.117
V = 0.066
χ 2 = 0.536
p = 0.464
V = 0.031
Glutamine (8 %) χ 2= 26.895
p< 0.001
V = 0.218
χ 2= 27.131
p< 0.001
V = 0.219
χ 2 = 9.594
p = 0.002
V = 0.130
χ 2= 15.530
p< 0.001
V = 0.166
χ 2= 15.335
p< 0.001
V = 0.165
Fatty Acids (40 %) χ 2= 12.534
p< 0.001
V = 0.149
χ 2 = 4.866
p = 0.027
V = 0.093
χ 2 = 0.302
p = 0.583
V = 0.023
χ 2 = 2.087
p = 0.149
V = 0.061
χ 2 = 0.267
p = 0.606
V = 0.022
Energy Drinks (27 %) χ 2= 14.246
p< 0.001
V = 0.159
χ 2 = 5.024
p = 0.025
V = 0.094
χ 2= 22.360
p< 0.001
V = 0.199
χ 2 = 0.653
p = 0.419
V = 0.034
χ 2 = 4.312
p = 0.038
V = 0.087
Sport/Electrolyte Drinks (90 %) χ 2= 17.637
p< 0.001
V = 0.177
χ 2 = 9.922
p = 0.002
V = 0.133
χ 2= 19.795
p< 0.001
V = 0.187
χ 2= 16.349
p< 0.001
V = 0.170
χ 2= 18.945
p< 0.001
V = 0.183
Sport Gels/Gummies (26 %) χ 2= 14.132
p< 0.001
V = 0.158
χ 2 = 8.300
p = 0.004
V = 0.121
χ 2= 12.120
p< 0.001
V = 0.146
χ 2 = 8.098
p = 0.004
V = 0.120
χ 2= 18.349
p< 0.001
V = 0.180
Sport/Protein Bar (71 %) χ 2= 27.780
p< 0.001
V = 0.222
χ 2= 29.989
p< 0.001
V = 0.230
χ 2= 16.794
p< 0.001
V = 0.172
χ 2= 28.890
p< 0.001
V = 0.226
χ 2= 38.043
p< 0.001
V = 0.259
Recovery Drinks (31 %) χ 2= 57.268
p< 0.001
V = 0.319
χ 2= 41.358
p< 0.001
V = 0.271
χ 2= 16.384
p< 0.001
V = 0.171
χ 2= 41.349
p< 0.001
V = 0.271
χ 2= 61.395
p< 0.001
V = 0.330
Creatine (7 %) χ 2= 19.434
p< 0.001
V = 0.186
χ 2= 15.634
p< 0.001
V = 0.166
χ 2 = 3.173
p = 0.075
V = 0.075
χ 2= 10.546
p< 0.001
V = 0.137
χ 2 = 6.629
p = 0.010
V = 0.108
Plant Extracts (47 %) χ 2 = 8.426
p = 0.004
V = 0.122
χ 2 = 2.079
p = 0.149
V = 0.061
χ 2 = 7.471
p = 0.006
V = 0.115
χ 2 = 5.633
p = 0.018
V = 0.100
χ 2 = 3.194
p = 0.074
V = 0.075
  1. Statistically significant associations at p ≤ 0.001 are in bold. Percentages after the supplement type represent the percent of total athletes consuming the supplements listed. Percentages after the performance-related reasons represent the percent of total athletes supplementing for the reasons listed