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Table 1 Demographic, reproductive, training, and metabolic characteristics of participants categorized by exercise and menstrual status

From: Energy availability discriminates clinical menstrual status in exercising women

  ExOv ExIncon ExAnov ExOligo ExAmen P-value* ExEumen P-value**
(n = 20) (n = 13) (n = 8) (n = 20) (n = 30) (n = 41)
Demographic characteristics         
Age (years) 24.9 ± 1.1 23.6 ± 1.2 24.9 ± 2.2 22.6 ± 0.9 21.6 ± 0.6 0.068 24.5 ± 0.8 0.004
Height (cm) 164 ± 1 166 ± 2 166 ± 1 166 ± 1 166 ± 1 0.869 165 ± 1 0.589
Weight (kg) 57.8 ± 1.3 59.5 ± 1.7 60.2 ± 1.2 58.1 ± 1.4 56.9 ± 1.3 0.594 58.8 ± 0.8 0.204
BMI (kg/m2) 21.4 ± 0.4 22.1 ± 0.3 21.8 ± 0.5 21.0 ± 0.4 20.7 ± 0.4 0.191 21.7 ± 0.2 0.045
Body fat (%) 25.2 ± 0.8 26.4 ± 1.3 26.0 ± 1.7 25.0 ± 1.2 25.0 ± 1.0 0.905 25.7 ± 0.6 0.526
Fat mass (kg) 14.5 ± 0.6 15.7 ± 1.0 15.5 ± 1.3 14.2 ± 0.8 14.4 ± 0.7 0.743 15.1 ± 0.5 0.410
Lean body mass (kg) 41.5 ± 0.9 41.2 ± 0.6 43.5 ± 0.7 42.0 ± 1.2 40.2 ± 0.8 0.318 41.9 ± 0.5 0.076
Reproductive characteristics         
Age of menarche (years) 12.2 ± 0.3 12.1 ± 0.4 12.4 ± 0.5 13.4 ± 0.4 13.5 ± 0.3a 0.006 12.2 ± 0.2 <0.001
Gynecological age (years) 12.7 ± 1.1 11.5 ± 1.2 12.4 ± 2.3 8.8 ± 1.0 8.0 ± 0.6a 0.002 12.2 ± 0.8 <0.001
Training characteristics         
VO2peak (ml/kg/min) 47.3 ± 1.1 44.5 ± 1.4 46.3 ± 2.4 45.4 ± 0.9 45.4 ± 1.6 0.841 46.2 ± 0.8 0.656
Exercise volume (min/week) 338 ± 46 360 ± 57 377 ± 63 377 ± 61 357 ± 51 0.998 353 ± 31 0.934
Exercise frequency (sessions/week) 4.2 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.3 0.819 4.4 ± 0.3 0.989
Exercise intensity (kcal/min) 6.1 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 0.5 6.2 ± 0.4 0.149 5.5 ± 0.3 0.145
Metabolic characteristics         
TT3 92.7 ± 3.2 93.5 ± 6.4 103.0 ± 8.9 90.4 ± 5.6 79.6 ± 4.1 0.048 95.3 ± 2.9 0.002
REE 32.0 ± 0.5 30.1 ± 0.5 29.2 ± 0.8 29.2 ± 0.8a 29.7 ± 0.6 0.020 30.8 ± 0.4 0.112
REE/pREE 0.96 ± 0.02 0.90 ± 0.02 0.90 ± 0.03 0.87 ± 0.02a 0.85 ± 0.02a 0.005 0.92 ± 0.01 0.001
  1. Values are the mean ± SEM.
  2. ExOv, exercising ovulatory; ExIncon, exercising inconsistent menstrual cycles; ExAnov, exercising anovulatory; ExOligo, exercising oligomenorrhea; ExAmen, exercising amenorrhea; ExEumen, exercising eumenorrhea, includes ExOv, ExIncon and ExAnov; TT3, total triiodothyronine; REE, resting energy expenditure.
  3. ap < 0.05 vs. ExOv.
  4. *p-value associated with ANOVA performed to examine mean differences between ExOv, ExIncon, ExAnov, ExOligo and ExAmen groups.
  5. **p-value associated with independent T-tests performed to examine mean differences between ExAmen and ExEumen groups.
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