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Table 1 Muscle carnosine, creatine, phosphocreatine, and total creatine over 4 weeks

From: Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine supplementation on muscle carnosine, body composition and exercise performance in recreationally active females

  BA BAC CRE PLA Time P value
Carnosine (μmol/g)
 Baseline 19.74 ± 8.69 20.81 ± 7.66 20.80 ± 2.81 15.70 ± 4.70 19.27 ± 6.50 T = 0.22
 4 Weeks 23.68 ± 1.56 24.23 ± 4.09 21.04 ± 7.00 16.53 ± 4.80 21.37 ± 5.31 G = 0.04
 Group 21.71 ± 1.44d 22.52 ± 1.34d 20.92 ± 1.44d 16.12 ± 1.70abc   T × G = 0.82
Creatine (mmol/kg DW)
 Baseline 47.13 ± 19.88 59.82 ± 37.7 72.96 ± 29.59 59.85 ± 7.79 59.92 ± 27.6 Tq = 0.07
 1 Week 50.73 ± 26.83 65.49 ± 15.25 88.55 ± 38.72 68.17 ± 7.74 67.80 ± 24.9 G = 0.14
 4 Weeks 42.33 ± 16.24 59.90 ± 9.77 67.72 ± 15.94 57.19 ± 8.07 57.28 ± 14.3 T × G = 0.99
 Group 46.73 ± 8.26 61.74 ± 6.24 76.4 ± 8.26 61.74 ± 8.26   
Phosphocreatine (mmol/kg DW)
 Baseline 22.18 ± 4.28 22.94 ± 18.02 31.69 ± 16.54 21.35 ± 4.44 24.29 ± 13.3 T = 0.10
 1 Week 25.91 ± 9.88 32.61 ± 19.62 23.43 ± 4.40 24.08 ± 4.23 27.47 ± 13.0 G = 0.98
 4 Weeks 34.75 ± 7.38†b 26.87 ± 7.04a 30.51 ± 6.26 31.43 ± 9.39 30.25 ± 7.49 T × Gq = 0.05
 Group 27.61 ± 4.69 27.47 ± 3.54 28.55 ± 4.69 25.62 ± 4.69   
Total creatine (mmol/kg DW)
 Baseline 63.04 ± 23.30 82.75 ± 37.19 105.11 ± 26.57 80.76 ± 11.18 82.89 ± 29.8 T = 0.76
 1 Week 59.47 ± 27.07 94.79 ± 8.30 111.98 ± 37.99 85.53 ± 4.39 89.02 ± 26.8 G = 0.02
 4 Weeks 74.28 ± 11.40 82.89 ± 5.32 96.89 ± 14.61 85.91 ± 18.07 84.66 ± 13.4 T × G = 0.79
 Group 65.60 ± 7.65bc 86.81 ± 5.78a 104.66 ± 7.65a 84.07 ± 7.65   
  1. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed on n = 27 (muscle carnosine) and a repeated measures MANOVA was performed on n = 19 (muscle phosphagen) samples. Individual group and time data are presented as means ± SD while time and group effects are presented as means ± SEM. MANOVA analysis on muscle creatine and phosphocreatine levels revealed an overall Wilks’ Lambda time (p = 0.22) and group × time (p = 0.80) effects. Univariate ANOVA p-levels from MANOVA analysis are presented for each variable. BA signifies beta-alanine only group; BAC represents beta-alanine and creatine combined group; CRE represents the creatine only group; PLA represents the placebo group; T represents time p-level; G represents group p-level, and T × G represents interaction. qrepresents quadratic p-level. † represents p < 0.05 difference from baseline. arepresents p < 0.05 difference from BA group. brepresents p < 0.05 difference from BAC group. crepresents p < 0.05 difference from CRE group. drepresents p < 0.05 difference from PLA group.
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