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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants M ± SD

From: Nine–month nutritional intervention improves restoration of menses in young female athletes and ballet dancers

Parameters Ballet dancers Female athletes P-value
Baseline characteristics    
Age (years) 17.1 ± 0.9 18.1 ± 2.6 NS
Age at menarche (years) 167.1 ± 4.5 13.0 ± 1.2 0.018
Age at the beginning of training (years) 6.7 ± 0.5 11.2 ± 3.5 < 0.001
Training period (years) 10.7 ± 1.2 6.8 ± 3.3 < 0.001
Number of training sessions per week (n/d) 5.2 ± 0.5 5.2 ± 1.0 NS
Hours of training per day (hours/d) 4.7 ± 1.1 4.0 ± 1.8 NS
Hours of training per week (hours/week) 24.9 ± 6.9 19.5 ± 7.2 0.009
RMR predicted (kcal/d) 1399 ± 60 1458 ± 56 < 0.001
RMR measured (kcal/d) 1198 ± 142 1354 ± 151 0.001
RMR measured/predicted × 100% 85.6 ± 9.1 92.8 ± 10.0 0.011
RMR measured - RMR predicted (kcal/d) -201.0 ± 122.1 -105.0 ± 146.8 0.017
RMR/FFM (kcal/kg) 28.2 ± 3.6 29.0 ± 3.6 NS
Hormonal parameters    
TSH (μIU/mL) 1.96 ± 1.33 1.74 ± 0.80 NS
PRL (ng/mL) 16.38 ± 8.88 13.0 ± 9.33 NS
T (ng/dL) 72.95 ± 25.92 37.28 ± 21.85 < 0.001
SHBG (nmol/L) 71.62 ± 22.03 62.79 ± 41.91 NS
Leptin (ng/mL) 4.59 ± 2.78 6.25 ± 4.94 NS