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Table 1 Summary of 17 studies reviewed on protein and resistance training

From: Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories

  Baseline    During study Change
Reference BW % BF Protein E Sex Wk Protein Protein E TrS FFM LM % BF Fat mass BW
  kg % g/kg kcal    g/kg type kcal   kg kg or % % kg kg
Burke, 2001 [1] NR NR NR NR M 6 1.2 Mix 3240 Tr NR 0.9 NR −0.2 1
  NR NR NR NR M 6 3.3 ↑W 3669 Tr NR 2.3 NR −0.6 1.5
  NR NR NR NR M 6 2.2 ↑W,Cr 3269 Tr NR 4 NR −0.4 3.7
Candow, 2006 [2]3 69.3 ± 12 NR NR NR M,F 6 1.7 Mix 3403 UT NR 0.3 NR NR NR
  71.8 ± 15 NR NR NR M,F 6 3 ↑S 3415 UT NR 1.7 NR NR NR
  69.3 ± 12 NR NR NR M,F 6 2.95 ↑W 3403 UT NR 2.5 NR NR NR
Candow, 2006 [23]1-3 87.2 ± 5.8 NR NR NR M 12 1.38 Mix 2878 UT NR 1 ± 1.3 NR NR NR
  87.5 ± 6.4 NR NR NR M 12 1.52 ↑LactOv 2630 UT NR 1.7 ± 1 NR NR NR
  85.3 ± 3.6 NR NR NR M 12 1.39 ↑LactOv 2753 UT NR 1.2 ± 0.7 NR NR NR
Consolazio, 1975 [3] NR NR 1.44 3084 M 6 1.39 C 3452 NR NR 1.21 NR −1.09 NR
  NR NR 1.44 3084 M 6 2.76 C 3532 NR NR 3.28 NR −2.21 NR
Cribb, 2007 [4]1,3 76 ± 12 16.9 ± 2.4 1.6 2782 M 12 1.65 Mix 2869 Tr NR 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.4
  70 ± 11 14.9 ± 1.7 1.6 2900 M 12 3.15 ↑W 2879 Tr NR 2.3 0.1 0.4 2.6
  84 ± 14 19.1 ± 1.9 1.5 3536 M 12 3 ↑Cr 3313 Tr NR 4.3 −0.3 0.4 4
  84 ± 12 18.5 ± 1.9 2.1 3423 M 12 3.3 ↑W,Cr 3473 Tr NR 3.4 0 0.7 4
Demling, 2000 [5]1,3 NR 27 ± 1.8 0.76 2350 M 12 0.83 Mix 2167 Tr NR −0.4 ± 0.4 −2 −2.5 ± 0.5 −2.5 ± 0.6
  NR 26 ± 1.7 0.71 2300 M 12 1.41 ↑C 2167 Tr NR −4.1 ± 1.4 −8 −7 ± 2.1 −2.8 ± 0.6
  NR 27 ± 1.6 0.73 2350 M 12 1.44 ↑W 2183 Tr NR −2 ± 0.7 −4 −4.2 ± 9 −2.3 ± 0.5
Eliot, 2008 [22]2,4 98 ± 7.6 27.9 ± 1.7 0.94 2175 M 14 0.96 Mix 2188 NR −0.4 NR −0.3 −0.6 0.3
  91.1 ± 5.2 28.7 ± 1.4 0.92 1950 M 14 0.84 ↑Cr 2012 NR 2.5 NR −1.2 −0.3 1.3
  88.3 ± 4.4 24.5 ± 1.8 0.95 2010 M 14 0.97 ↑W 1938 NR 0.7 NR −0.3 0 0.4
  92.6 ± 5.1 25.1 ± 1.5 1.03 2007 M 14 1.18 ↑W,Cr 2130 NR 1.6 NR −0.3 0 −0.1
Hartman, 2007 [6]1,2 80.5 ± 3.8 NR 1.4 3033 M 12 1.65 Mix 3273 UT 2.4 NR NR −0.5 1.9
  83.3 ± 4.1 NR 1.2 3105 M 12 1.65 ↑S 2974 UT 2.8 NR NR −0.2 2.6
  78.8 ± 2.5 NR 1.4 3009 M 12 1.8 ↑Milk 3189 UT 3.9 NR NR −0.8 3.1
Hoffman, 2007 [7]2,3 99 ± 10.2 21.8 ± 7.3 NR NR M 12 1.24 Mix 3139 Tr NR 0.1 ± 1.4 0.2 ± 1.5 NR 0.4 ± 2
  94.7 ± 7.9 21.7 ± 5.5 NR NR M 12 2 ↑LactOv 3072 Tr NR 1.4 ± 1.9 −0.8 ± 2 NR 0.9 ± 1.8
Hulmi, 2009 [8]1-3 74.8 ± 8.4 16.6 ± 4.4 1.3 2293 M 21 1.5 Mix 2544 UT NR NR NR NR NR
  76.5 ± 7.3 17.1 ± 3.8 1.4 2484 M 21 1.71 ↑W 2472 UT NR NR NR NR NR
Kerksick, 2006 [9]1 85.1 ± 11 17.5 ± 6.1 1.6 3387 M 10 1.56 Mix 2883 Tr 0 0 0 0.2 0.2
  85.3 ± 14.8 18.8 ± 7.3 2.3 3310 M 10 2.12 ↑W,AA 2970 Tr −0.1 −0.1 0.2 0.2 0
  81.2 ± 12.7 17.3 ± 6.4 2.1 2501 M 10 2.32 ↑W,C 2736 Tr 1.8 1.9 −0.2 0.1 3
Kukuljan, 2009 [20]1 85.2 ± 10.9 28.3 ± 5.5 1.32 2361 M 78 1.31 Mix 2468 UT NR 0.3 NR −0.5 0
  83.2 ± 11.9 28 ± 7.8 1.26 2315 M 78 1.4 ↑Milk 2400 UT NR 1.2 NR −0.6 0.6
Mielke, 2009 [25] 72.4 ± 11.5 19.2 ± 8.5 1.29 2495 M 8 1.15 Mix 2156 UT −0.3 NR 0.7 0.5 0.1
  79.6 ± 18.1 20.6 ± 7.3 1.36 2632 M 8 1.31 ↑W,AA 1988 UT 0.3 NR 0.8 0.4 0.6
Rankin, 2004 [19] 79.8 ± 4.9 20.3 ± 1.5 1.3 2909 M 10 1.2 Mix 2575 UT 0.8 NR −1.4 −1.3 −0.9
  78 ± 5.2 17.9 ± 2.1 1.2 2488 M 10 1.3 ↑Milk 2683 UT 1.6 NR −0.9 −0.6 0.9
Verdijk, 2009 [18] 80.2 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 2.2 1.1 2197 M 12 1.1 Mix 2173 UT NR 0.6 −0.7 NR −0.1
  79.2 ± 2.8 24.9 ± 1.4 1.1 2221 M 12 1.1 ↑C 2245 UT NR 0.7 −1.2 NR −0.3
White, 2009 [24]4 63.6 ± 6.3 31 ± 6 0.88 1603 F 8 0.87 Mix 1466 UT 1.9 NR −1.4 −0.9 0
  61.7 ± 7.3 29.6 ± 6.2 0.89 1612 F 8 0.96 Mix 1494 UT 1.5 NR −0.9 −0.2 1.1
  70.8 ± 11 32.8 ± 7.2 0.89 1546 F 8 1.09 ↑Milk 1813 UT 2 NR −1.8 −0.9 1.1
Willoughby, 2007 [10]1,3 78.63 ±  13.64 19.95 ±  6.94 2.06 2897 M 10 2.21 Mix 3203 UT 2.7 ± 1.31 NR −1.07 ±  1.16 −0.22 ±  0.24 4.35 ± 2.88
  81.46 ±  15.78 21.52 ±  7.14 2.21 3569 M 10 2.57 ↑W,C 3658 UT 5.62 ± 0.98 NR −2.06 ±  0.39 −1.13 ±  0.82 7 ± 2.32
  1. 1 Intake data reported for multiple time points were averaged.
  2. 2 Denotes study providing additional protein/energy on only resistance training days – additional protein/energy dose divided over 7 days and this was added to the daily average.
  3. 3 Significant benefit of additional protein to strength and/or muscle CSA/myofibrilar protein.
  4. 4 Multiple LP and HP groups; data for each protein level were averaged since significant differences were observed or not observed between all LP and HP levels
  5. AA, amino acids; C, casein; Cr, creatine; E, energy; HP, higher protein group; LactOv, milk and egg protein supplement; LP, lower protein or control group; Milk, increased milk consumption; Mix, mixed diet with varied protein sources; NR, not reported; S, soy; Tr, resistance trained participants; TrS, training status; UT, untrained participants; W, whey; Wk, weeks.