The phopho-calcium metabolism and the maintenance of bone mass is not the only important role vitamin Dplays. Vitamin D is also known for its anti-inflammatory function and for modulating the immune defence system. The vitamin D deficit is to be referred not simply to a bone tissue worsening, but to cardiovascular diseases, various types of tumours and some autoimmune diseases. In the sport life, a vitamin D deficit is often related to muscular problems, neuromuscular pains, predisposition to injuries, and can affect one’s performance. Since indoor athletes have reduced exposition to sun rays, they are more likely to be subjected to these risks than outdoor athletes. However, in soccer, the athletes can experience vitamin D deficit not just during the winter but in other periods too, most likely due to several reasons such as, dark complexion, coming from high altitude championships, injuries, or inadequate exposition to sun rays during the summer. The purpose of this study was to examine the vitamin D shortage and BMC variations in Italian Serie A elite male soccer players.