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Table 6 Functional balance testing results observed over time

From: Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

Variable 0 Weeks 10 14 Group p-level Time G × T
Sit to Stand Function       
Weight Transfer (sec) 0.377 ± 0.18 0.355 ± 0.17 0.370 ± 0.22 0.80 0.91 0.89
Rising Index (% body weight) 16.6 ± 4.3 18.6 ± 5.7 18.2 ± 5.6 0.97 0.13 0.34
Sway Velocity (deg/sec) 4.63 ± 1.3 4.56 ± 1.1 4.62 ± 1.2 0.78 0.78 0.12
Step Up and Over Knee Function       
Lift-up Index - RL (% body weight) 41.2 ± 9.2 43.6 ± 9.7 44.5 ± 8.6† 0.90 0.01 0.71
Lift-up Index - LL (% body weight) 34.7 ± 8.5 37.4 ± 8.1 38.9 ± 7.2† 0.70 0.002 0.50
Impact Index - RL (% body weight) 48.7 ± 11.2 48.4 ± 12.1 48.3 ± 10.9 0.91 0.70 0.77
Impact Index - LL (% body weight) 52.1 ± 10.6 52.4 ± 13.5 54.5 ± 14.1 0.84 0.22 0.47
Movement Time - RL (sec) 1.73 ± 0.3 1.55 ± 0.2† 1.47 ± 0.2† 0.83 0.001 0.07
Movement Time - LL (sec) 1.76 ± 0.3 1.60 ± 0.5† 1.49 ± 0.3† 0.98 0.002 0.68
Forward Lunge Knee Function       
Distance - RL (% body height) 43.2 ± 7 45.6 ± 7† 46.3 ± 7† 0.14 0.001 0.75
Distance - LL (% body height) 42.5 ± 5 45.7 ± 7† 46.2 ± 7† 0.24 0.001 0.49
Impact Index - RL (% body weight) 18.5 ± 5 19.0 ± 7 18.6 ± 5 0.65 0.76 0.77
Impact Index - LL (% body weight) 14.0 ± 5 16.4 ± 7 15.7 ± 5 0.86 0.15 0.97
Contact Time - RL (sec) 1.664 ± 0.5 1.344 ± 0.3† 1.359 ± 0.4† 0.57 0.001 0.81
Contact Time - LL (sec) 1.641 ± 0.7 1.347 ± 0.4† 1.310 ± 0.4† 0.64 0.002 0.98
Force Impulse - RL (% body weight/sec) 168 ± 53 139 ± 36† 141 ± 38† 0.61 0.001 0. 59
Force Impulse - LL (% body weight/sec) 162 ± 65 136 ± 33† 132 ± 37† 0.62 0.002 0. 99
  1. Data are means ± standard deviations for time main effects. RL = right leg, LL = left leg, G = group, T = time. † Indicates p < 0.05 difference from baseline.