Effects of sleep deprivation and acute supplementations on passing accuracy (dominant side). The mean ± SD is displayed for accuracy out of 10 passes on the dominant side (20 passes total per trial) for the 10 subjects under different treatment conditions (placebo; 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine) either in non-sleep deprived or sleep deprived states. Dominant was chosen by the subjects as the side they believed showed better passing accuracy. All subjects completed 20 repetitions of the passing skill per trial, alternating passing sides (10 on dominant side). With placebo treatment sleep deprivation was associated with a significant fall in performance (a) (p < 0.001) compared to non-sleep deprivation. The 50 and 100 mg/kg creatine and 1 and 5 mg/kg caffeine doses were all associated with a significantly better performance (b) (p < 0.001) than the placebo conditions.