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Table 2 Summary of strength of pairwise associations between reason to use and type of supplements used (all athletes who use supplements n = 520).

From: Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

  Maintain strength Enhance endurance Able to train longer Doctors' advice
Creatine .432 (< .001) NA .307 (< .001) NA
Iron NA .021(.632) NA .259 (< .001)
Ginseng NA NA .088a (.044) NA
Whey protein .434 (< .001) NA .245 (< .001) NA
Caffeine   .273 (< .001) .220 (< .001) NA
Vitamin C NA NA .055 (.209) .003 (.944)
  1. a expected association from anecdotal effect. Each cell displays the ϕ coefficient and the corresponding p-values in parentheses (NA = no association expected).