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Table 3 Summary of previous studies of caffeine effects during submaximal exercise

From: Low doses of caffeine reduce heart rate during submaximal cycle ergometry

  Study Caffeine use Caffeine % of VO2max Mode Effects of caffeine on HR Systolic Blood Pressure
A Bangsbo (1992) n = 11 not reported 500 mg 80–100 Treadmill No diff Not studied
B Bell (1998) n = 8 habitual 5 mg/kg 85 Cycle at 5 min; not at 10 min Not studied
C Bell (2002) n = 8 non-habitual n = 13 habitual 5 mg/kg 50 & 80 Cycle No diff at 50%
at 80% for both h + nh
Not studied
D Bell et al (2003) n = 9 habitual 5 mg/kg 80 Cycle No diff Not studied
E Casal et al (1985) n = 9 not reported 6 mg/kg 75 Treadmill No diff Not studied
F Daniels et al (1998) n = 10 non-habitual 6 mg/kg 65 Cycle No diff Higher with caffeine
G Engels et al (1999) n = 8 habitual 5 mg/kg 30 Cycle No diff Higher with caffeine
H Flinn et al (1990) n = 9 non-habitual 10 mg/kg 40–100 Cycle No diff Not studied
I French et al (1991) n = 6 non-habitual 10 mg/kg 75 Treadmill No diff Not studied
J Gaesser GA (1985) n = 8 habitual 5 mg/kg 37–100 Cycle ↓ at 37–77% max, no diff at max Not studied
K Graham et al (2000) n = 9 non-habitual 6 mg/kg 70 Cycle No diff Higher with caffeine
L Jacobsen et al (2001) n = 8 non-habitual 6 mg/kg 70 Cycle No diff Not studied
M Kaminsky (1998) n = 8 non-habitual n = 8 habitual 5 kg/mg 30, 50, 70 Treadmill No diff Higher for both groups with caffeine
N McNaughton (1987) n = 10 non-habitual 10 + 15 mg/kg Not reported Cycle ↑ Higher with caffeine Not studied
O Nishijima (2002) n = 8 habitual 300 mg 40–50 Cycle Not measured No diff
P Perkins R (1975) n = 14 not reported 4 + 7 + 10 mg/kg 50–100 Cycle No diff for any doses Not studied
Q Powers (1983) n = 7 not reported 5 mg/kg 25 – 100 Cycle No diff Not studied
R Sasaki (1987) n = 7 not reported 3.2 mg/kg 63 Treadmill ↑ Higher with caffeine Not studied
S Sullivan et al (1992) n = 5 non-habitual n = 5 habitual 3.3 mg/kg 45 Treadmill ↓ for non-habitual
No diff for habitual
Higher for both groups with caffeine
T Sung et al (1990) n = 34 habitual 5 mg/kg 25 & 50 Cycle No diff Higher with caffeine
U Sung et al (1995) n = 12 habitual 3.3 mg/kg Not reported Cycle No diff Higher with caffeine
V Tarnopolosky (1989) n = 6 habitual 6 mg/kg 70 Treadmill No diff Not studied
W Trice et al (1993) n = 8 habitual 5 mg/kg 85–90 Cycle No diff Not studied
X Turley & Gerst (2006) n = 52 not reported 5 mg/kg 65% of max hr 75% of max hr Cycle for boys & girls at 65%
for boys & girls at 75%
for boys at 65%
for girls at 75%
Y Weir et al (1987) n = 6 not reported 6.5 mg/kg 72–76 Treadmill No diff Not studied
McClaran (present study) n = 9 non-habitual 1.5 + 3 mg/kg 30, 46, 63 Cycle at 30-63% max No diff
  1. All studies used adults as subjects except Turley & Gerst (2006)