Twelve recreationally resistance-trained males (age: 22 ± 1.4 years; body mass 79 ±9.78 kg; 1.81 ± 0.07 m height) volunteered to participate in the study completing 2 randomised controlled circuit resistance training sessions (CT). Participants ingested 2 doses of 500ml of water mixed 60g of a multi-ingredient (MTN) containing whey proteins, carbohydrate, creatine, HMB and sodium bicarbonate or maltodextrin (PL). Beverages were consumed (3 doses of ~166ml) during and after the workout (1 × 500ml). Both MTN and PL looks the same colour and flavour and provide a similar amount of calories (~230 per serving). CT involved three rounds of 7 resistance exercises (CMJs, Bench Press, Parallel-Squat, Upright row, Alternate Lunges, Dead Lift, Push-press, Abdominals) followed by 1 min rest. Participants performed 12 repetitions at 70% 1RM in each of the exercises with no rest in between (only the time to change from one exercise to the next).
Measurements included pre and post (30 min and 60 min) salivary markers of humoral immune response: Antimicrobial Peptide, Alpha Defensins (HNP 1-3). The total kg lifted per exercise and in the overall workout was considered as indicator of performance. ANOVA design and Cohen d effect sizes (ES) were used to analyse potential differences between times and treatment conditions.