Efects of MSTN in the absence or presence of leucine, HMB, or creatine on markers of skeletal muscfle hypertrophy. Legend: Data are presented as means ± standard error. Data in A show that MSTN treatment decreases myotube diameter, while Leu, HMB, and Crea rescue MSTN-induced atrophy. Data in B & C are n = 5-6 plates per treatment. Muscle protein synthesis data in E are n = 4 treatments per plate; of note, MSTN+Leu, MSTN+HMB and MSTN+Crea samples were separately analyzed for MPS (data not shown). One-way ANOVA with LSD post-hoc comparisons performed where applicable; difference superscript letters = p < 0.05 and NS = no significant differences. In subfigure D of 10x light micrographs, white bar is 100 μm.