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Table 3 Male Body Attitudes Scale [MBAS] subscale scores of adolescent boys using certain products and supplements in the past two weeks

From: Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs

  Used Not used ANCOVAa Effect size Effect of age
  Mean [ SD] Mean [ SD]   ηp2  
Vitamins and Minerals  
• MBAS height 6.37 [2.85] 6.24 [2.82] F(1,1100) = 0.60 .001 NS
• MBAS fatness 19.82 [9.01] 19.52 [8.36] F(1,1001) = 0.41 .000 NS
• MBAS muscularity 31.34 [11.25] 29.92 [10.69] F(1,992) = 5.37* .005 ***
• MBAS total score 65.12 [22.17] 63.31 [20.34] F(1,887) = 1.90 .002 ***
Protein powder  
• MBAS height 6.68 [2.74] 6.15 [2.85] F(1,1100) = 6.77* .006 NS
• MBAS fatness 21.09 [9.20] 19.16 [8.35] F(1,1001) = 8.63** .009 NS
• MBAS muscularity 33.41 [10.99] 29.48 [10.72] F(1,992) = 20.94*** .02 ***
• MBAS total score 69.89 [21.85] 62.04 [20.40] F(1,887) = 20.89*** .02 ***
Sports drinks (eg., Gatorade, Powerade)  
• MBAS height 6.32 [2.80] 6.25 [2.86] F(1,1100) = .18 .000 NS
• MBAS fatness 19.55 [8.51] 19.71 [8.70] F(1,1001) = .08 .000 NS
• MBAS muscularity 31.79 [10.72] 29.08 [10.94] F(1,992) = 16.44*** .02 ***
• MBAS total score 65.19 [20.59] 62.62 [21.40] F(1,887) = 3.30 .00 ***
Energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull, V, Mother)  
• MBAS height 6.44 [2.66] 6.22 [2.90] F(1,1100) = 1.28 .00 NS
• MBAS fatness 20.26 [8.92] 19.36 [8.45] F(1,1001) = 1.39 .00 NS
• MBAS muscularity 33.38 [10.76] 29.16 [10.74] F(1,992) = 22.07*** .02 ***
• MBAS total score 68.06 [20.18] 62.17 [21.16] F(1,887) = 10.26** .01 **
  1. Note: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 aANCOVA controlled for age in these analyses.