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Table 1 Measures used to assess body image, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport

From: Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs

Variable Measure
Body image Direct questioning: (Do you think you are: Too fat/ just right/ too thin) and (“Would you like to be: A little lighter, A lot lighter, The same as it is now, Heavier, A lot heavier”) [6]
Current attempts to gain or lose weight Direct questioning ‘Are you currently trying to gain weight’ (Yes/No) and ‘Are you currently trying to lose weight’ (Yes/No)[6].
Sports participation Direct questioning about participation in weight lifting asked participants to indicate their levels of sports involvement [Not involved, Recreational, Serious, Weight lifting or Body building]
Supplement use Direct questioning about the use of sports drinks, vitamins and minerals, energy drinks, protein powders, herbal supplements, and creatine in the past two weeks (yes/no)
Body dissatisfaction Male Body Attitudes Scale [MBAS] [28]. Participants responded on a likert-type scale [Never = 1, to Always = 6] includes three subscales of dissatisfaction with height (2 items), fatness (12 items), muscle (14 items), and a total score (24 items). Chronbach’s Alpha was .92.
Attitudes towards performance enhancing drugs Performance Enhancement Attitudes Scale [PEAS] [29]. Participants respond to 17-items on a Likert scale [Strongly disagree = 1, to Strongly agree = 6]. Chronbach’s Alpha was .89.