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Table 2 HMB effects on body composition and performance *

From: International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

Experiment Subjects Protocol Periodized Diet control Duration/dose Additional supplements Body composition measures Performance measures Outcomes of HMB-Ca supplementation relative to placebo
Nissen 1996 [7] Trained, NCAA football players Monitored progressive resistance training No No 7 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No TOBEC for total FFM and FM Bench Press and Squat FFM: + 1.9 % FM: - 0.5 % Strength: + 2.3 % average
Nissen 1996 [7] Untrained college-aged males Monitored progressive resistance training No Yes 3 weeks, 1.5 or 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No TOBEC for total FFM and FM Strength: Average weight lifted during last 3 working sets of upper and lower body exercises FFM: + 0.6 % FM: No Effect Strength: +2.6 to 17.4 % depending on lift
Jowko 2001 [10] Active, college-aged males Monitored progressive resistance training No No 3 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca 20 grams creatine per day for 7 days followed by 10 grams per day for 14 days BIA Strength: Cumulative 1-RM of major lifts (Squat, Bench Press, Clean) FFM: + 0.6 % FM: - 0.7 % Strength: + 9 %
Kreider 1999[15] Resistance trained, college-aged males males with > 1 year experience Not monitored: Instructed not to change current individualized training regimens No No 28 days, 3 or 6 grams per day HMB-Ca No DXA for: LBM and FM Strength: Bench Press and Leg Press LBM: No Effect FM: No Effect Strength: No Effect
Gallagher 2000[12] Untrained college-aged males Monitored progressive resistance training No No 8 weeks, 3 or 6 grams per day HMB-Ca No 7 site Skin Fold Isometric and Isokinetic testing, Non-specific to training stimulus FFM: + 3 % FM: - 1.6 % Strength: +2-3.5 % No differences between 3 and 6 g
Panton 2000[20] Men and women, divided into untrained and resistance trained (> 6 months), 20–40 yrs of age Monitored high intensity progressive resistance training No No 4 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No Underwater Weighing Bench Press and Leg Press 1-RM FFM: +.5 kg FM: - .6 % Strength: +3-15 %
Hoffman 2004[19] College Football players Football camp, not controlled by investigators No No 10 days, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No Not Measured Wingate Power No Effects
Kraemer 2009[13] Recreationally active, college-aged males periodized resistance training split Yes Yes 12 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca 14 grams arginine and 14 grams glutamine per day DXA for LBM and FM and Limb Circumference Squat and Bench Press 1RM Vertical Jump LBM: + 40% FM: -40 % Strength: 50 % Power: +85 %
Thomson 2009[22] Trained college-aged males Non Monitored Assigned progressive resistance training program with 84 % compliance No No 9 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No BIA Bench Press, Preacher Curl, and Leg Extension 1-RM FFM: 0.4 FM: - 3.8 Strength: 1.1-9.0 depending on lift
Portal 2011[23] Elite adolescent volleyball players 13.5-18 yrs of age Combination of progressive, resistance, and endurance exercise Not reported No 7 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No DXA Power on Wingate Strength of Bench Press and Leg Press Fat: PL = +3.5% Vs. HMB= −6.6% FFM: PL= no change Vs. HMB= +3.7% Power: PL = +3% HMB = +13.5% Strength: PL=0-6.7 % vs. HMB +15.7 % - 23.5 %
Ransone 2003[24] College football players Progressive resistance and endurance exercise No No 4 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No Skin Folds Bench Press, Power Cleans, Squats 1-RM FFM: +0.3 FM: - 3.8 Strength: 1.7 % increase
Kreider 2000 [18] Trained, college football players Offseason strength and conditioning program Yes No 4 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No DXA Bench Press, Power Cleans, Squats 1-RM, 12x6 second sprint performance No Effects
O’Connor 2007[25] Trained rugby players, 25 yrs of age Progressive resistance training No No 6 weeks, 3 grams of HMB-Ca or HMB-Ca + Creatine per day 3 grams creatine per day Skin Folds Squat, Bench Press, and Deadlift 1-RM Wingate Power Neither HMB-Ca nor creatine had an effect
Slater 2001[26] College-aged, trained polo players and rowers Non-controlled workouts assigned by the athletes’ respective coaches Unknown No 6 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No DA Bench Press, Hip Sled, Pullups 3-RM No significant effects
  1. * Abbreviations used in the table. TOBEC-total-body electrical conductivity; DXA-Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; BIA-bioelectrical impedance; FFM-fat free mass; FM-fat mass; LBM-lean body mass (TOBEC).