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Table 2 Biochemical biomarkers of rats submitted to continuous or interval swimming with or without supplement

From: Hesperidin associated with continuous and interval swimming improved biochemical and oxidative biomarkers in rats

Group name# C CH CS CSH IS ISH
(n) (10) (10) (10) (10) (10) (10)
Glucose, mg/dL 93.9 ± 4.4a 91.2 ±2.5ab 88.2 ± 2.5ab 85.6 ± 3.9bc 81.5 ± 6.4c 75.3 ± 5.7d
Triglycerides, mg/dL 147 ± 15a 126 ± 13.1b 122 ± 17b 125 ±7.7b 115 ± 19b 108 ± 12b
Cholesterol, mg/dL 140 ± 22ab 118 ± 9.7c 120 ± 17c 106 ± 7.1d 146 ± 11.1a 125 ±10b
LDL-C, mg/dL 64.9 ± 15.6a 31.1 ± 14.4b 31.2 ± 17.9b 11.8 ±8.3c 55.2 ± 10.4a 32.6 ± 10.1b
HDL-C, mg/dL 45.4 ± 6.3b 61.2 ± 5.2a 63.9 ± 4.5a 72.0 ± 8.1a 68.2 ± 4.7a 70.6 ±4.9a
TBARS, μM 1.30 ± 0.45a 1.08 ± 0.31a 1.24 ± 0.29a 1.34 ± 0.18a 2.23 ± 1.37b 1.23 ± 0.33a
DPPH, % reduction 25.2 ± 4.5b 22.4 ± 3.3b 9.9 ± 3.9a 28.0 ± 3.6c 16.4 ± 1.5b 15.0 ± 13.4b
  1. #C negative control, CH positive control, CS continuous swimming, CSH continuous swimming + hesperidin, IS interval swimming, ISH interval swimming + hesperidin.
  2. Results are expressed as mean ± SD.
  3. a, b, c, d Statistical differences among groups, indicated by different letters, were tested by Anova One Way, followed by Tukey test for glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, DPPH, and Student Newman-Keuls for TBARS (P < 0.05).