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Table 3 Dietary intake before and during Ramadan, M ± SD

From: Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

  Before Ramadan During Ramadan
  FAST FED FAST FED
Energy intake (kcal · d-1) 3492 ± 253 3409 ± 209 3434 ± 266 3613 ± 245
Protein (g · d-1) 125 ± 10 133 ± 8 127 ± 9 129 ± 6
Protein (%) 14 ± 1 16 ± 1 15 ± 1 14 ± 1
Protein (g.Kg.d-1) 1.6 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1
Fat (g · d-1) 105 ± 8 101 ± 7 104 ± 7 106 ± 6*
Fat (g.Kg.d-1) 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1
Fats (%) 27 ± 4 27 ± 2 27 ± 3 26 ± 2
Carbohydrate (g · d-1) 511 ± 72 492 ± 44 497 ± 64 536 ± 55**
Carbohydrate (g.kg.d-1) 6.4 ± 0.8 6.2 ± 0.5 6.3 ± 0.6 6.8 ± 0.6**
Carbohydrate (%) 58 ± 5 58 ± 3 58 ± 4 59 ± 2
Potassium (g . d-1) 2.5 ± 0.4 2.8 ± 0.4 2.4 ± 0.4 2.4 ± 0.3*
Sodium (g . d-1) 6.9 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.1 7 ± 1 6.9 ± 1
Total water intake (L · d-1) 4.5 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.7* 3.9 ± 0.4**
  1. Significantly different from before Ramadan: * (P < 0.05); ** (P < 0.01). Note: FAST = subjects training in a fasted state; FED = subjects training in a fed state.