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Table 2 Environmental factors in pre and post-training. Mean ± SD, Δ% and t-value (Cohen's D Effect Size) are reported

From: Nine weeks of high-intensity indoor cycling training induced changes in the microbiota composition in non-athlete healthy male college students

Variable Pre-training Post-training Δ% t-value (ES)
Physical features
Weight (kg) 68.1 ± 9.5 67.4 ± 7.5 - 0.6% -1.182 (0.287)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 22.1 ± 2.6 22.1 ± 2.2 0.2% -0.059 (0.014)
Fat Mass (%) 15.8 ± 5.4 12.5 ± 4.6 -19.4% -4.170 (1.011)
Muscular Mass (kg) 42.1 ± 4.9 43.4 ± 3.8 3.7% 2.708 (0.657)
Sport-related features
VO2max (ml/min) 2965 ± 418 3133 ± 344 7.0% 1.935 (0.469)
VO2max (ml/kg/min) 44.2 ± 8.0 46.5 ± 5.8 6.9% 1.723 (0.418)
Wpeak (W/kg) 3.4 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.5 20.5% 11.147 (2.703)
LT1 (W/kg) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.4 45.2% 3.997 (0.969)
LT2 (W/kg) 2.0 ± 0.5 2.7 ± 0.4 37.5% 4.860 (1.179)
Dietary features
Energy (kcal) 2098 ± 481 2413 ± 790 16.2% 2.048 (0.497)
Protein (g) 84.4 ± 17.2 98.2 ± 30.0 15.8% 2.642 (0.641)
Carbohydrate (g) 266.9 ± 60.7 322.2 ± 100.9 23.2% 2.548 (0.618)
Starch (g) 129.7 ± 47.1 158.3 ± 61.9 40.5% 1.967 (0.477)
Fat (g) 78.9 ± 24.4 84.8 ± 36.3 9.4% 0.833 (0.202)
Saturated Fats (g) 23.0 ± 7.6 24.6 ± 10.2 10.1% 0.767 (0.186)
Monounsaturated Fats (g) 27.0 ± 9.3 28.5 ± 13.5 11.5% 0.517 (0.126)
Polyunsaturated Fats (g) 8.5 ± 2.9 10.0 ± 4.5 28.3% 1.152 (0.279)
Omega-3 (% kcal/kcal tot) 0.5 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.1 4.2% -0.987 (0.239)
Omega-6 (% kcal/kcal tot) 3.1 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 0.5 5.8% -0.201 (0.049)
Fibres (g) 8.4 ± 4.4 11.7 ± 8.4 48.4% 2.203 (0.534)
Iron (mg) 8.4 ± 2.6 10.0 ± 4.1 26.6% 1.982 (0.481)
Vitamin A (mcg) 772 ± 459 920 ± 540 44.1% 1.345 (0.326)
Vitamin C (mg) 48.7 ± 24.0 84.5 ± 51.7 117.4% 3.150 (0.764)
Vitamin D (mg) 1.7 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 0.7 54.9% 0.535 (0.130)
Vitamin E (mg) 7.0 ± 3.0 8.7 ± 4.9 29.7% 1.845 (0.448)
Aminoacids 12509 ± 4183 15121 ± 4916 28.6% 2.641 (0.641)