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Table 5 Findings of subgroup analyses reported in the included reviews

From: Effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance: an umbrella review

Reference Subgroup analyses focus Subgroups analyses results
Carr et al. [13] Increase in dose by 1 mmoL/kg/body mass 0.5% (90% CL: −0.1, 0.6%)
Five extra bouts 0.6% (90% CL: 0.2, 1.0%)
10 × duration − 0.6% (90% CL: − 1.2, 0.3%)
Non-athletes −1.1% (90% CL: − 2.2, 0.0%)
Females −0.7% (90% CL: − 2.1, 0.7%)
Non-blinded 0.2% (90% CL: −0.5, 0.9%)
Grgic et al. [17] – muscle endurance Large muscle groups ES: 0.40 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.66)
Small muscle groups ES: 0.31 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.59)
One time point of ingestion ES: 0.53 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.93)
Multiple time points of ingestion ES: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.42)
Grgic et al. [17] – muscle strength Tested in a rested state ES: 0.02 (95% CI: − 0.09, 0.13)
Tested in a fatigued state ES: −0.16 (95% CI: − 0.59, 0.28)
One time point of ingestion ES: −0.14 (95% CI: − 0.50, 0.21)
Multiple time points of ingestion ES: 0.04 (95% CI: −0.06, 0.14)
Lopes-Silva et al. [19] – peak power Acute ingestion: Wingate bout 1 ES: − 0.07 (95% CI: − 0.36, 0.23)
Acute ingestion: Wingate bout 2 ES: 0.00 (95% CI: − 0.42, 0.42)
Acute ingestion: Wingate bout 3 ES: 0.14 (95% CI: −0.28, 0.56)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 1 ES: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.20, 1.37)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 2 ES: 1.52 (95% CI: 0.90, 2.13)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 3 ES: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.33, 1.45)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 4 ES: 1.36 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.96)
Lopes-Silva et al. [19] – mean power Acute ingestion: Wingate bout 1 ES: 0.12 (95% CI: −0.18, 0.41)
Acute ingestion: Wingate bout 2 ES: 0.14 (95% CI: −0.28, 0.56)
Acute ingestion: Wingate bout 3 ES: 0.22 (95% CI: −0.20, 0.65)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 1 ES: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.39)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 2 ES: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.62)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 3 ES: 1.66 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.38)
Multi-day ingestion: Wingate bout 4 ES: 2.09 (95% CI: 1.31, 2.87)
  1. ES: effect size; CL: confidence limit; CI: confidence interval