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Table 3 Results of the quality of evidence assessment using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria

From: Effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance: an umbrella review

Reference GRADE items Quality of the evidence*
Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Publication bias
Carr et al. [13] Unclear (no quality assessment performed) Not serious Serious indirectness (only 15% of participants included in the analysis were women) Not serious Undetected Low
 ΟΟ
Christensen et al. [14] Not serious Not serious Serious indirectness (only 9% of participants included in the analysis were women) Not serious Strongly suspected (no “grey” literature searches; asymmetry of the funnel plot was not explored; the effect size of the largest study was smaller than the pooled estimate) Low
 ΟΟ
Grgic [15] Peak power: not serious Peak power: not serious Peak power: serious indirectness (none of the participants included in the analysis were women) Peak power: not serious Peak power: undetected Peak power: moderate
Ο
Mean power: not serious Mean power: not serious Mean power: serious indirectness (only 15% of participants included in the analysis were women) Mean power: not serious Mean power: undetected Mean power: moderate
Ο
Grgic et al. [16] Not serious Not serious Serious indirectness (none of the participants included in the analysis were women) Not serious Undetected Moderate
Ο
Grgic et al. [17] Muscle endurance: not serious Not serious Serious indirectness (only 5% of participants included in the analysis were women) Not serious Strongly suspected (“grey” literature searches were performed; however, asymmetry of the funnel plot was not explored and the effect size of the largest study was smaller than the pooled estimate) Low
 ΟΟ
Muscle strength: not serious Not serious Serious indirectness (only 4% of participants included in the analysis were women) Not serious Undetected Moderate
Ο
Lopes-Silva et al. [18] Total work: not serious Total work: not serious Total work: serious indirectness (only 28% of participants included in the analysis were women) Total work: serious limitation Total work: undetected Low
 ΟΟ
Best sprint: not serious Best sprint: not serious Best sprint: serious indirectness (only 23% of participants included in the analysis were women) Best sprint: not serious Best sprint: undetected Moderate
Ο
Last sprint: not serious Last sprint: not serious Last sprint: serious indirectness (only 23% of participants included in the analysis were women) Last sprint: not serious Last sprint: undetected Moderate
Ο
Lopes-Silva et al. [19] Acute ingestion, peak power: not serious Acute ingestion, peak power: not serious Acute ingestion, peak power: serious indirectness (none of the participants included in the analysis were women) Acute ingestion, peak power: not serious Acute ingestion, peak power: strongly suspected (no “grey” literature searches; asymmetry of the funnel plot was not explored; the effect size of the largest study was similar to the pooled estimate) Low
 ΟΟ
Acute ingestion, mean power: not serious Acute ingestion, mean power: not serious Acute ingestion, mean power: serious indirectness (none of the participants included in the analysis were women) Acute ingestion, mean power: not serious Acute ingestion, mean power: strongly suspected (no “grey” literature searches; asymmetry of the funnel plot was not explored; the effect size of the largest study was similar to the pooled estimate) Low
 ΟΟ
Multi-day ingestion, peak power: not serious Multi-day ingestion, peak power: not serious Multi-day ingestion, peak power: serious indirectness (none of the participants included in the analysis were women) Multi-day ingestion, peak power: not serious Multi-day ingestion, peak power: strongly suspected (no “grey” literature searches; asymmetry of the funnel plot was not explored; the effect size of the largest study was similar to the pooled estimate) Low
 ΟΟ
Multi-day ingestion, mean power: not serious Multi-day ingestion, mean power: not serious Multi-day ingestion, mean power: serious indirectness (none of the participants included in the analysis were women) Multi-day ingestion, mean power: not serious Multi-day ingestion, mean power: strongly suspected (no “grey” literature searches; asymmetry of the funnel plot was not explored; the effect size of the largest study was similar to the pooled estimate) Low
 ΟΟ
Turnes et al. [20] Unclear (no quality assessment performed) Not serious Serious indirectness (only 10% of participants included in the analysis were women) Not serious Undetected Low
 ΟΟ
  1. Studies were classified as:  = high quality; Ο = moderate quality;  ΟΟ = low quality; ΟΟΟ = very low quality