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Table 1 Summary of the meta-analyses included in the umbrella review

From: Effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance: an umbrella review

Reference Included studies Number of included primary studies (sample size) Performance test/outcome Effect size and p-value I2
Meta-analyses that used Cohen’s d for data analysis
 Christensen et al. [14] Crossover study designs 25 studies (n = 235) Endurance events lasting 45 s to 8 min 0.40 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.54); p < 0.001 n/a
 Grgic [15] Crossover study designs 10 studies (n = 102) Mean and peak power in single and repeated Wingate tests Peak power bout 1: − 0.01 (95% CI: − 0.06, 0.04); p = 0.730
Peak power bout 2: 0.02 (95% CI: − 0.10, 0.13); p = 0.774
Peak power bout 3: 0.09 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.17); p = 0.048
Peak power bout 4: 0.29 (95% CI: − 0.13, 0.71); p = 0.180
Mean power bout 1: 0.02 (95% CI: − 0.07, 0.11); p = 0.688
Mean power bout 2: 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.16); p = 0.005
Mean power bout 3: 0.21 (95% CI: − 0.16, 0.58); p = 0.268
Mean power bout 4: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.08); p = 0.009
Peak power bout 1: 0%
Peak power bout 2: 7%
Peak power bout 3: 0%
Peak power bout 4: 0%
Mean power bout 1: 0%
Mean power bout 2: 0%
Mean power bout 3: 0%
Mean power bout 4: 0%
 Grgic et al. [16] Crossover study designs 5 studies (n = 46) Yo-Yo test performance 0.36 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.63); p = 0.007 14%
 Grgic et al. [17] Crossover study designs 13 studies for muscle endurance (n = 113)a and 11 studies for muscle strength (n = 110) Muscle endurance and muscle strength Muscle endurance: 0.37 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.59); p = 0.001
Muscle strength: − 0.03 (95% CI: − 0.18, 0.12); p = 0.725
Muscle endurance: 70%
Muscle strength: 45%
 Lopes-Silva et al. [18] Crossover study designs 6 studies (n = 77) Measures of repeated-sprint ability (total work, best sprint, and last sprint performance) Total work: 0.43 (95% CI: −0.11, 0.97); p = 0.12
Best sprint: 0.02 (95% CI: − 0.30, 0.34); p = 0.90
Last sprint: 0.20 (95% CI: − 0.13, 0.52); p = 0.14
Total work: 0%
Best sprint: 0%
Last sprint: 69%
 Lopes-Silva et al. [19] Crossover and between-group study designs 6 studies (n = 65) that used protocols of acute ingestion and 3 studies (n = 60) that used multi-day protocols of ingestion Mean and peak power in single and repeated Wingate tests Acute ingestion
Peak power: 0.02 (95% CI: − 0.19, 0.23); p = 0.87
Mean power: 0.15 (95% CI: − 0.06, 0.36); p = 0.92
Multi-day protocols of ingestion
Peak power: 1.21 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.42); p = 0.001
Mean power: 1.26 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.56); p = 0.001
Acute ingestion
Peak power: 0%
Mean power: 0%
Multi-day protocols of ingestion
Peak power: 27%
Mean power: 88%
Meta-analyses that used percent changes for data analysis
 Carr et al. [13] Crossover study designs 26 studies (n = 241) General mean power 1.7% (90% CL: 90% CL: − 0.3%, 3.7) n/a
 Turnes et al. [20] Crossover study designs 5 studies (n = 52) Mean power in 2000-m rowing 1.4% (90% CL: 0.1, 2.6%) n/a
  1. CI: confidence interval; CL: confidence limit; a12 studies were included in the meta-analysis