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Table 4 Body composition, metabolic and performance values. Data are reported as mean plus SD and percentage of change

From: Effects of 30 days of ketogenic diet on body composition, muscle strength, muscle area, metabolism, and performance in semi-professional soccer players

  KD PRE KD POST % changes WD PRE WD POST % changes 2 Way ANOVA Time*Diet Main Time effect Main diet effect
Body Weight (Kg) 78.19 ± 11.74 73.98 ± 9.40 −5.12 76.15 ± 12.03 73.76 ± 10.13 −2.87 n.s. < 0.001 n.s.
FM (Kg) 19.47 ± 4.07 17.92 ± 3.81 −7.93 18.88 ± 6.67 17.96 ± 6.30 −4-92 0.036 < 0.001 n.s.
VAT (g) 388 ± 66 325 ± 54 −16.03 355 ± 104 328 ± 101 −7.99 0.0018 < 0.0001 n.s.
TRUNK fat (%) 25.73 ± 3.90 24.04 ± 3.79 −6.63 24.45 ± 4.57 23.18 ± 4.37 −5.21 n.s. < 0.001 n.s.
LST (Kg) 57.4 ± 7.10 56.9 ± 7.01 −0.87 56.21 ± 5.94 56.019 ± 5.72 - 0.34 n.s. < 0.001 n.s.
pHa (°) 7.4 ± 0.64 7.8 ± 0.66 + 5.63 7.32 ± 0.39 7.31 ± 0.45 −0.17 0.003 =0.005 n.s.
ECW (%) 40.11 ± 2.25 38.68 ± 2.10 −3.56 40.35 ± 1.22 40.38 ± 1.79 + 0.05 0.0060 =0.008 n.s.
ECW (L) 19.93 ± 3.39 18.99 ± 2.63 −4.26 19.75 ± 2.96 19.58 ± 2.97 −0.91 n.s. =0.017 n.s.
TBW (L) 49.79 ± 6.43 48.80 ± 5.39 −1.76 48.84 ± 6.55 48.31 ± 6.47 −1 n.s. n.s. n.s
ICW (L) 29.8 ± 3.51 29.78 ± 3.33 + 0.1 29.49 ± 3.69 29.15 ± 3.74 −1.03 n.s. n.s. n.s.
DLST (Kg) 7.58 ± 1.85 8.09 ± 2.08 + 7.28 6.96 ± 1.68 7.65 ± 1.98 + 16.75 n.s. n.s. n.s.
LST Hydr % 86.72 ± 2.68 85.91 ± 2.69 −0.9 86.68 ± 2.95 86.08 ± 3.56 − 0.67 n.s. n.s n.s.
LST L arm (Kg) 3.25 ± 0.55 3.33 ± 0.47 + 2.82 3.25 ± 0.4 3.39 ± 0.61 + 4.53 n.s. n.s n.s.
LST R arm (Kg) 3.2 ± 0.4 3.19 ± 0.39 −0.33 3.28 ± 0.54 3.27 ± 0.4 −0.38 n.s. n.s n.s.
LST L leg (Kg) 9.31 ± 1.66 9.43 ± 1.5 + 2.58 9.61 ± 1.22 9.04 ± 1.26 −5.67 n.s. n.s n.s.
LST R leg (Kg) 9.33 ± 1.4 10.4 ± 1.77 + 8.15 9.74 ± 1.24 9.25 ± 1.32 −4.79 n.s. n.s n.s.
LST Trunk (Kg) 28.04 ± 4.49 26.38 ± 2.99 −5.3 26.61 ± 2.78 27.08 ± 3.19 + 1.91 n.s. n.s n.s.
DBP 77.5 ± 4.10 72.88 ± 4.51 −6.0 78.8 ± 6.7 75.88 ± 5.93 −3.71 n.s. < 0.001 n.s.
Waist circumference (cm) 86.75 ± 4.97 82.56 ± 3.61 −4.74 83.63 ± 8.66 82.25 ± 6.86 −1.48 0.0185 < 0.001 n.s.
CSA (cm2) 71.83 ± 8.32 72.20 ± 6.53 + 0.87 71.05 ± 9.88 71.29 ± 9.247 −0.53 n.s n.s. n.s.
MCV (N) 628.9 ± 163.3 617.3 ± 150.2 − 0.63 621.3 ± 99.11 596.0 ± 95.56 −3.63 n.s n.s. n.s.
Strenght/CSA 8.754 ± 1.966 8.515 ± 1.628 −1.04 8.794 ± 1.220 8.472 ± 1.697 −4.19 n.s. n.s. n.s.
RER 0.87 ± 0.08 0.74 ± 0.04 −14.18 0.85 ± 0.04 0.83 ± 0.03 −2.85 0.0008 < 0.001 n.s.
REE (Kcal/day) 1940 ± 138.9 1939 ± 137 = 1916 ± 140.8 1917 ± 136.3 + 0.05 n.s n.s. n.s.
REE (Kcal/Kg bw/day) 23.4 ± 0.8 23.3 ± 0.8 + 5.47 22.3 ± 1.0 22.4 ± 0.8 + 3.05 n.s < 0.001 n.s.
Yo-yo (m) 880.4 ± 244.8 1123 ± 266.8 + 28.04 683.0 ± 388.1 911.1 ± 378.5 + 44.62 n.s < 0.001 n.s.
CMJ (cm) 40.4 ± 6.5 43.6 ± 6 + 8.52 37.3 ± 2.9 38.6 ± 04.1 + 3.60 n.s < 0.001 n.s.
  1. Values are mean ± SD
  2. n.s. not statistically different (p > 0.05)
  3. The percentage of change was calculate through the following formula [(initial value/final value)/initial value]*100. FM fat mass, VAT visceral adipose tissue, LST lean soft tissue, pHa, ECW extra cellular water, TBW total body water, ICW intracellular water, DLST dry lean soft tissue, LST Hydr lean soft tissue hydration, DBP blood pressure, CSA cross sectional area, MCV maximal voluntary contraction, RER respiratory exchange ratio, REE resting energy expenditure, CMJ counter movement jump, mmHg millimeters of Mercury, L left, R right. DLST was calculated as LST-TBW; LST Hydr was calculated as TBW/LST