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Table 3 Changes in blood cells counts levels between pre-post competitions season. Mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD)

From: Effects of 14-weeks betaine supplementation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and hematology status in professional youth soccer players during a competition season: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Variables Groups Pre-Season Mid-Season Post-Season Pre-Post Season 95% CI Hedge’s g
M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD % Change Hedge’s g Lower Upper
WBC (mm3) BG 7321.4 ± 1544.8 6935.7 ± 1328.2 6528.6 ± 1583.3 −0.5 −1.2 L 0.3 −10.8
PG 7220.0 ± 797.5 6966.7 ± 883.7 7540.0 ± 949.3# 0.3 −0.4 S 1.1 4.4
Neutrophils (%) BG 53.3 ± 7.5 48.1 ± 3.9 41.1 ± 8.5 −1.4 −2.3 L −0.6 −22.9
PG 53.3 ± 8.2 57.6 ± 7.4 55.7 ± 14.0 0.2 −0.5 M 0.9 4.5
Lymphocytes (%) BG 37.1 ± 7.0 42.6 ± 3.0 50.6 ± 7.3 1.8 0.9 L 2.7 36.4
PG 37.6 ± 8.7 34.0 ± 7.0 35.9 ± 12.9 −0.1 −0.9 L 0.6 −4.5
NLR BG 1.5 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.3 −1.4 −2.3 L −0.6 − 44.2
PG 1.5 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 1.1 0.4 −0.3 S 1.1 24.4
MIX (%) BG 9.6 ± 1.7 9.3 ± 3.3 8.3 ± 3.5 −0.5 −1.2 L 0.3 −13.8
PG 9.7 ± 2.1 8.9 ± 2.0 8.9 ± 2.6 −0.3 −1.0 L 0.4 −8.3
RBC (Mil.mm3) BG 5.3 ± 0.3 5.2 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.5* −1.1 −1.9 L −0.3 −8.1
PG 5.4 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.4 5.5 ± 0.3 0.3 −0.4 S 1.0 1.9
MCV (fL) BG 81.5 ± 3.0 85.0 ± 2.8 84.2 ± 2.4 0.9 0.1 T 1.7 3.3
PG 83.7 ± 4.0 86.3 ± 4.9 85.8 ± 5.6 0.4 −0.3 S 1.1 2.6
MCH (pg) BG 27.9 ± 1.2 29.7 ± 1.0 29.6 ± 1.0* 1.5 0.7 M 2.3 6.1
PG 28.4 ± 1.9 29.7 ± 2.4 29.2 ± 2.4#* 0.3 −0.4 S 1.0 2.5
MCHC (g/dL) BG 34.3 ± 0.7 35.1 ± 1.0 35.3 ± 1.1* 1.1 0.3 S 1.8 2.9
PG 34.1 ± 1.4 34.6 ± 1.5 33.7 ± 2.1# −0.2 −0.9 L 0.5 −1.1
RDW (%) BG 13.5 ± 1.1 13.1 ± 0.8 13.3 ± 0.9 −0.3 −1.0 L 0.5 −2.0
PG 13.2 ± 1.3 13.5 ± 1.1 13.1 ± 1.2# −0.1 − 0.8 L 0.6 −1.1
Hb (g/dL) BG 15.2 ± 1.0 15.9 ± 0.8 15.6 ± 0.8# 0.4 −0.3 S 1.2 2.6
PG 15.1 ± 1.3 15.9 ± 1.4 15.1 ± 1.1# 0.0 −0.7 M 0.7 −0.1
Hct (%) BG 44.4 ± 2.4 45.6 ± 2.4 45.5 ± 2.1 0.4 −0.3 S 1.2 2.4
PG 44.7 ± 3.0 45.9 ± 2.8 45.0 ± 2.7 0.1 −0.6 M 0.8 0.8
Platelets (mm3) BG 200,714.3 ± 22,269.1 192,357.1 ± 26,696.6 188,928.6 ± 36,389.9 −0.4 −1.1 L 0.4 −5.9
PG 209,533.3 ± 43,843.7 209,200.0 ± 37,361.6 221,333.3 ± 36,112.3# 0.3 −0.4 S 1.0 5.6
  1. BG Betaine Group, PG Placebo Group, WBC White blood cells, MIX Plural of eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes, NLR Neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio, RBC Red blood cells, MCV Mean corpuscular volume, MCH Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, RDW Red cell distribution width, Hb Hemoglobin, Hct Hematocrit; P1 Pre-season, P2 Mid-season, P3 Post-season, T Trivial, S Small, M Moderate, L Large
  2. significant difference compared to P1-P2 (p < 0.05);
  3. # significant difference compared to P2-P3 (p < 0.05);
  4. * significant difference compared to P1-P3 (p < 0.05)