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Table 2 Changes in cytokines levels during pre- mid- and post-season. Mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD)

From: Effects of 14-weeks betaine supplementation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and hematology status in professional youth soccer players during a competition season: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Variables Groups Pre-Season Mid-Season Post-Season Pre-Post Season 95% CI Hedge’s g
M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD % Change Hedge’s g Lower Upper
IL-6 (pg/mL) BG 4.13 ± 0.65 3.60 ± 0.50 3.05 ± 0.55#* −26.1 −1.69 L − 2.56 −0.83
PG 4.20 ± 0.79 4.36 ± 0.69 4.49 ± 0.96 6.8 0.31 S − 0.41 1.03
IL-1β (pg/mL) BG 3.16 ± 0.68 2.69 ± 0.59 1.79 ± 0.63#* −40.2 −1.40 L −2.23 −0.58
PG 3.26 ± 0.86 3.59 ± 0.72 4.12 ± 1.15* 26.1 0.79 M 0.05 1.54
TNF-α (pg/mL) BG 8.85 ± 1.12 8.01 ± 0.92 6.70 ± 1.03#* −24.3 −1.89 L −2.79 −1.00
PG 8.91 ± 1.14 8.52 ± 1.23 8.24 ± 1.45 −7.5 −0.48 M −1.21 0.24
  1. BG Betaine Group, PG Placebo Group, IL-6 Interleukin-6, IL-1β Interleukin-1 beta, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, P1 Pre-season, P2 Mid-season, P3 Post-season, T Trivial, S Small, M Moderate, L Large
  2. significant difference compared to P1-P2 (p < 0.05);
  3. # significant difference compared to P2-P3 (p < 0.05);
  4. * significant difference compared to P1-P3 (p < 0.05)