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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the soccer players (n = 29) U16 by groups

From: Effects of 14-weeks betaine supplementation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and hematology status in professional youth soccer players during a competition season: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Variables Groups Mean ± SD Confidence Interval 95%
Height (cm) BG 172.1 ± 2.3 [170.8 to 173.5]
PG 174.2 ± 4 [171.9 to 176.4]
Body mass (kg) BG 59.2 ± 4.8 [56.4 to 61.9]
PG 65.8 ± 7.0 [61.9 to 69.6]
BMI (kg.m2) BG 18.8 ± 4.7 [16.1 to 21.6]
PG 21.7 ± 1.8 [20.7 to 22.6]
VO2max (ml.kg− 1.min− 1) BG 48.7 ± 2.2 [47.4 to 50.0]
PG 47.5 ± 2.6 [46.1 to 48.9]
PHV (years) BG 13.6 ± 0.2 [13.3 to 13.7]
PG 13.4 ± 0.5 [13.1 to 13.6]
Maturity Offsets (years) BG 1.8 ± 0.2 [1.6 to 2.0]
PG 2.1 ± 0.4 [1.8 to 2.3]
Age (years) BG 15.4 ± 0.3 [15.3 to 15.5]
PG 15.5 ± 0.2 [15.3 to 15.6]
Body Fat (%) BG 8.7 ± 2.7 [7.1 to 10.2]
PG 9.2 ± 3.5 [7.3 to 11.1]
LBM (kg) BG 54.0 ± 4.6 [51.4 to 56.7]
PG 59.6 ± 5.4 [56.7 to 62.6]
  1. SD Standard deviation, BG Betaine group, PG Placebo group, BMI Body mass index, VO2max, PHV Peak height velocity; LBM Lean body mass