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Table 2 Study Description

From: Body composition changes in physically active individuals consuming ketogenic diets: a systematic review

First author, ref Body composition measurement method Diet prescription method Diet Dietary intake Energy Intake Intent
Kcal/d CHO % (g/kg) FAT % (g/kg) PRO % (g/kg)
Crossover Study Design
 Greene et al. [22], DXA Counseling and education materials KD
CON
2072
2058
8 (0.5)
45 (2.9)
69 (2.0)
33 (1.0)
23 (1.5)
22 (1.5)
Balance
 Heatherly et al. [24], L BIA Education materials KD
CON
1885a
2769a
6a(0.3)
45a(3.9)
64a(1.6)
39a(1.5)
28a (1.6)
16a(1.6)
Balance
 Nazaraweicz et al. [25],L BIA Education materials KD
CON
NR
NR
13
NR
74
NR
13
NR
Deficit
 Prins et al. [23], BIA Counseling and education materials KD
CON
2947
2837
6 (0.6)
56 (5.1)
69 (3.2)
28 (1.3)
25 (2.6)
16 (1.7)
Balance
Parallel Study Design
 Dostal et al. [26], BIA Counseling and education materials KD
CON
1962
1783
8 (0.6)
45 (2.7)
69 (2.2)
34 (0.9)
23 (1.7)
18 (1.1)
Balance
 Gregory et al. [30], DXA Education materials KD
CON
1580
1746
11a(0.5)
43a(2.3)
65a(1.3)
38a(1.2)
23a(1.2)
19a(1.2)
Balance
 Kephart et al. [28], DXA Education materials KD
CON
1948
NR
3a(0.2)
NR
79a(2.0)
NR
18a(1.1)
NR
Balance
 LaFountain et al. [29], DXA Counseling KD
CON
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Balance
 McSwiney et al. [16], DXA Counseling and education materials KD
CON
3022
2644
6a(0.5)
65a(5.6)
77a(3.0)
20a(0.8)
17a(1.5)
15a(1.3)
Balance
 Paoli et al. [31], BIA Counseling KD
CON
3443
3529
5 (0.5)
55 (5.5)
68 (3.0)
20 (0.9)
27 (2.7)
25 (2.5)
Balance
 Vargas et al. [15], DXA Controlled feeding KD
CON
NR
NR
10
55
70
25
20
20
Excess
 Vargas-Molina et al. [27], DXA Counseling KD
CON
1710
1980
9 (0.7)
57 (4.5)
64 (2.0)
23 (0.8)
27 (1.9)
20 (1.6)
Balance
 Wilson et al. [11], DXA Counseling KD
CON
2609
2550
5a(0.4)
50a(4.1)
75a(2.7)
29a(1.0)
20a(1.6)
21a(1.7)
Balance
  1. Data are reported as mean
  2. Abbreviations: DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIA bio-electrical impedance analysis, NR not reported
  3. Lindicates longitudinal study design
  4. aindicates percentages calculated from available data