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Table 2 Chronic- dose taurine supplementation studies to date and outcomes

From: Taurine in sports and exercise

Author Participants Dosage (g) Timing of Dose Outcomes
Batitucci 2018 [3] 14 3 3 g of pure taurine (capsule) every day in the morning before breakfast, during an eight-week period No changes in energy expenditure or swimming performance; ↑ in plasma taurine and lactate concentrations
da Silva et al. [12] 21 .5 g·kg/BW/day One capsule per day for a total of 21 days, beginning 14 days before the eccentric protocol and continuing throughout the 7-day postexercise period ↑ strength levels and thiol total content; ↓ muscle soreness, LAD level, CK activity, and oxidative damage; Antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory markers, and IL-10 were not altered during the recovery period compared with the placebo group
Galloway et al. [23] 7 First part: 1.66 g. Second part: 5 g/day and 6 g/day of placebo First part: Seven days of oral taurine (1.66 g) supplementation with breakfast and lunch. Second part: cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day) No difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions; ↑ the appearance of AA following exercise; A 13-fold ↑ increase in plasma taurine concentration; No aerobic effects
Lee et al. [41] 24 4 Subjects were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 6), and given a placebo, taurine (4 g/day), carnitine (4 g/day), or glutamine (4 g/day) tablets for 2 weeks. ↑ TTE (6.9 min or 9.0 min longer) at 75% of VO2max; ↓ serum Pi concentration measured at all-out state (14% ↓)
McLeay et al. [45] 10 0.1 g/kg/BW; No more than 10 g Completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/BW of either taurine or rice flour in capsules; evening. Significant ↓ in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001) for both taurine and placebo; No effects in CK levels
Ra et al. [56] 29 2 Participants orally consumed 2 g of placebo (lactose) or taurine powder three times a day after meals for 2 weeks before exercise ↓ DOMS
Ra et al. [57] 36 2 Placebo + placebo [placebo], BCAA + placebo, placebo + taurine, and BCAA + taurine [combined]) and given a combination of 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo) and 2.0 g taurine (or placebo), three times a day, for two weeks prior to and three days after eccentric elbow flexor exercises ↓ exercise-induced DOMS and muscle damage
Zhang et al. [91] 11 6 After the first exercise test, the subjects received supplements of a daily dose of 6 g (2 g three times a day) taurine powder for 7 days prior to the second exercise test. After 7-day of taurine supplementation, an identical exhaustive test procedure was repeated at the same time of day ↓ serum TBARS before exercise (p < 0.05) and resulted in a significantly ↓ DNA migration 24 h after exercise (p < 0.01). Significant ↑ VO2max, ↑ exercise TTE, and ↑ maximal workload in test with taurine supplementation (p < 0.05); ↑ taurine concentration
  1. ↑ = improved performance, ↓ = decreased performance, T/TAU taurine, BW bodyweight, P placebo, LAD lactate dehydrogenase, CK creatine kinase, IL-10 interleukin-10, AA amino acids, TTE time to exhaustion, Pi inorganic phosphorus, DOMS delayed onset muscle soreness, TBARS thiobaribituric-acid reative substance