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Table 1 Low taurine supplementation studies to date and outcomes

From: Taurine in sports and exercise

Author Participants Dosage (g) Timing of Dose Outcomes
Balshaw et al. [2] 8 1 Placebo or a 1000 mg T (capsule) 2 h ingestion period ↑ 3KTT performance (TA 646.6 ± 52.8 s and PL 658.5 ± 58.2 s) equating to a 1.7% improvement; ↑ Relative oxygen uptake, HR, RPE. No change in blood lactate between conditions
Kammerer et al. [36] 14 1 Four beverages drinking 250 ml of one of the following: one with 80 mg caffeine, one with 1000 mg taurine, one with 80 mg caffeine plus 1000 mg taurine, a commercial energy drink (Red Bull®) or a placebo drink 10–15 min prior to a maximal exercise bout Combination of caffeine (80 mg) + taurine (1000 mg) in an energy drink prior to exercise results in no effects on cardiorespiratory fitness indices (VO2max, HRmax, TTE), strength (RHS and LHS), power (VJ), concentration (Grid) and immediate memory (Digits); No significance of taurine alone on aerobic parameters
Page [52] 11 0.5 Taurine (50 mg kg − 1) or placebo (3 mg kg − 1 maltodextrin) 2 h prior to exercise ↑ TTE by 10% (25.16 min vs. 22.43 min, p = 0.040), end sweat rate by 12.7% and ↓ [La] by 16.5%. Core temperature ↓ in the final 10% of the time to exhaustion (38.5 °C vs. 38.1 °C, p = 0.049); ↓ RPE
Rutherford et al. [64] 11 1.66 Consumed a noncaloric sweetened beverage with either 1.66 g of T or nothing added (P) 1 h before exercise No difference in TT performance between any of the 3 trials; Average carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates were unaffected; 16% ↑ (5 g, ~ 84 kJ; p < .05) total fat oxidation
Waldron et al. 2018 [80] 9 0.5 High cadence (90 r/min) + taurine (50 mg/kg body mass); high cadence + placebo (3 mg/kg body mass maltodextrin); low cadence (50 r/min) + taurine; low cadence + placebo 1.5 h prior to exercise ↓ HR vs. placebo prior to the ramp test; ↑ blood lactate in taurine conditions; ↑ end-test power in taurine conditions
Waldron et al. 2019 [81] 12 0.5 Participants were allocated to one of four conditions, separated by 72 h: TTE + taurine; TTE + P; 3MAOT + taurine; 3MAOT + placebo 1.5 h prior to exercise ↑ CP (P < 0.05) (212 ± 36 W) than baseline (197 ± 40 W) and placebo (193 ± 35 W); Work and power not affected; ↑ TTE 5% > CP increased by 1.7 min after TAU (17.7 min) compared to placebo (16.0 min); ↑ estimated time across all work targets
Ward et al. [83] 11 1 Trials were performed two hours after the consumption of either 1000 mg of TAU or placebo (P) ↓ of TAU on performance; no effect on VO2, lactate, pH, or HCO3
Warnock et al. [85] 7 0.5 C (5 mg/kg/ BM), T (50 mg/kg/ BM), C + T (5 mg/kg/ BM + 50 mg/kg/ BM) or P (5, 49 mg/kg BM) in a gelatin capsule 1 h prior to exercise ↑ in anerobic performance compared to P, C or C + T, 63
  1. ↑ = improved performance, ↓ = decreased performance, C creatine, T/TAU taurine, BM bodymass, P placebo, mg/kg milligram per kilogram, TTE time to exhaustion, 3KTT 3-km time trial, RHS right-handed grip strength, LHS left-handed grip strength, VJ vertical jump, RPE rate of perceived exertion, La lactate, CP critical power, 3MAOT 3-min-all-out-test