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Table 2 SUVs for the trunk and lower extremity skeletal muscles between the pitcher and control groups

From: Skeletal muscle metabolism on whole-body positron emission tomography during pitching

Muscles Throwing side Non-throwing side
SUV value Confidence interval Effect size P-value SUV value Confidence interval Effect size P-value
Pitching Control Pitching Control
Abdominal rectus 0.52 ± 0.09 0.57 ± 0.13 [− 0.16, 0.05] 0.66 0.313 0.50 ± 0.09 0.53 ± 0.11 [− 0.12, 0.07] 0.6 0.591
Abdominal external oblique 0.50 ± 0.05 0.46 ± 0.07 [−0.01, 0.10] 0.4 0.13 0.51 ± 0.07 0.48 ± 0.06 [−0.04, 0.09] 0.45 0.371
Abdominal internal oblique 0.64 ± 0.09 0.62 ± 0.09 [−0.07, 0.10] 0.07 0.676 0.67 ± 0.11 0.64 ± 0.10 [−0.07, 0.13] 0.88 0.572
Transverse abdominal 0.69 ± 0.12 0.69 ± 0.13 [−0.11, 0.11] 0.22 0.978 0.72 ± 0.17 0.60 ± 0.13 [−0.02, 0.26] 1.21 0.095
Greater psoas 0.85 ± 0.18 0.73 ± 0.13 [−0.08, 0.21] 0.37 0.359 0.91 ± 0.22 0.87 ± 0.12 [−0.13, 0.20] 0.38 0.622
Lumbar quadrate 0.66 ± 0.08 0.64 ± 0.14 [−0.08, 0.13] 0.52 0.641 0.68 ± 0.09 0.60 ± 0.11 [−0.01, 0.17] 0.52 0.089
Erector spinae 0.78 ± 0.13 0.76 ± 0.12 [−0.10, 0.13] 0.16 0.743 0.79 ± 0.10 0.74 ± 0.10 [−0.05, 0.14] 0.1 0.299
Iliacus 0.92 ± 0.10 0.98 ± 0.23 [−0.23, 0.11] 0.88 0.467 1.37 ± 0.36 0.95 ± 0.14 [0.16, 0.69] 1.52 0.005a
Gluteus maximus 0.75 ± 0.15 0.64 ± 0.06 [0.01, 0.22] 1.02 0.035a 0.80 ± 0.19 0.68 ± 0.10 [−0.03, 0.26] 1.05 0.1
Gluteus medius 0.76 ± 0.08 0.73 ± 0.10 [−0.06, 0.11] 0.17 0.566 0.86 ± 0.18 0.75 ± 0.05 [−0.02, 0.25] 0.73 0.092
Gluteus minimus 1.17 ± 0.57 0.98 ± 0.13 [−0.20, 0.58] 0.47 0.33 1.68 ± 1.00 0.91 ± 0.18 [0.05, 1.49] 0.9 0.039a
Piriformis 0.93 ± 0.16 0.93 ± 0.16 [−0.15, 0.15] 0.59 0.977 1.11 ± 0.27 0.97 ± 0.19 [−0.09, 0.35] 0.05 0.22
Internal obturator 0.93 ± 0.19 1.20 ± 0.37 [−0.54, 0.02] 1.45 0.062 0.99 ± 0.21 1.04 ± 0.37 [−0.34, 0.23] 0.5 0.712
Obturator externus 0.95 ± 0.17 1.00 ± 0.24 [−0.24, 0.16] 0.86 0.677 1.12 ± 0.33 1.02 ± 0.19 [−0.15, 0.35] 0.12 0.414
Tensor fasciae latae 0.60 ± 0.19 0.43 ± 0.08 [0.03, 0.31] 1.15 0.020a 0.89 ± 0.61 0.45 ± 0.05 [0.00, 0.88] 0.94 0.049a
Rectus femoris 0.67 ± 0.36 0.49 ± 0.08 [−0.06, 0.43] 0.67 0.13 0.90 ± 0.63 0.49 ± 0.08 [−0.05, 0.86] 0.78 0.074
Vastus lateralis 0.64 ± 0.12 0.55 ± 0.10 [−0.01, 0.19] 0.66 0.088 0.60 ± 0.15 0.55 ± 0.10 [−0.08, 0.17] 0.42 0.424
vastus intermedius 0.80 ± 0.12 0.64 ± 0.15 [0.03, 0.29] 1.51 0.016a 0.76 ± 0.11 0.69 ± 0.10 [−0.03, 0.17] 0.85 0.15
vastus medialis 0.68 ± 0.13 0.55 ± 0.06 [0.03, 0.23] 1.21 0.011a 0.62 ± 0.14 0.55 ± 0.06 [−0.03, 0.17] 0.73 0.14
Sartorius 0.66 ± 0.31 0.54 ± 0.10 [−0.10, 0.34] 0.43 0.264 0.92 ± 0.34 0.52 ± 0.08 [0.15, 0.64] 1.4 0.005a
Gracilis 0.58 ± 0.20 0.43 ± 0.10 [0.00, 0.30] 0.58 0.052 0.59 ± 0.16 0.40 ± 0.10 [0.07, 0.31] 0.98 0.005a
Semimembranosus 0.78 ± 0.32 0.52 ± 0.07 [0.03, 0.50] 0.92 0.029a 0.70 ± 0.21 0.55 ± 0.07 [0.00, 0.29] 0.84 0.051
Semitendinosus 0.88 ± 0.59 0.46 ± 0.10 [0.00, 0.84] 0.85 0.051 0.64 ± 0.15 0.48 ± 0.08 [0.05, 0.27] 1.44 0.008a
Biceps femoris 0.67 ± 0.11 0.53 ± 0.06 [0.06, 0.23] 1.77 0.002a 0.68 ± 0.12 0.54 ± 0.08 [0.05, 0.24] 1.59 0.006a
Adductor complex 0.74 ± 0.09 0.66 ± 0.07 [0.01, 0.16] 1.24 0.029a 0.75 ± 0.08 0.65 ± 0.09 [0.02, 0.17] 1.85 0.017a
Popliteus 0.98 ± 0.19 0.77 ± 0.11 [0.06, 0.36] 1.18 0.010a 0.97 ± 0.17 0.80 ± 0.12 [0.04, 0.32] 0.86 0.014a
Anterior tibial 1.18 ± 0.50 0.79 ± 0.17 [0.02, 0.76] 0.89 0.042a 1.28 ± 0.68 0.75 ± 0.20 [0.03, 1.03] 0.93 0.038a
Extensor hallucis longus 1.11 ± 0.32 0.81 ± 0.19 [0.05, 0.55] 1.05 0.022a 1.07 ± 0.33 0.88 ± 0.23 [−0.07, 0.46] 0.58 0.143
Extensor digitorum longus 0.98 ± 0.24 0.77 ± 0.13 [0.02, 0.39] 1.01 0.031a 1.06 ± 0.31 0.82 ± 0.17 [0.00, 0.47] 1.23 0.051
Peroneus longus 1.03 ± 0.39 0.66 ± 0.09 [0.10, 0.66] 1.23 0.013a 1.07 ± 0.38 0.67 ± 0.15 [0.12, 0.69] 1.09 0.007a
Peroneus brevis 1.26 ± 0.39 0.61 ± 0.08 [0.37, 0.93] 1.92 0.000a 1.63 ± 0.99 0.57 ± 0.14 [0.34, 1.77] 1.17 0.008a
Flexor digitorum longus 0.97 ± 0.19 0.82 ± 0.40 [−0.14, 0.45] 0.11 0.29 0.92 ± 0.24 0.75 ± 0.25 [−0.06, 0.39] 0.53 0.143
Posterior tibial 1.06 ± 0.32 0.81 ± 0.22 [−0.01, 0.51] 0.42 0.055 0.85 ± 0.14 0.83 ± 0.19 [−0.14, 0.18] 0.44 0.776
Flexor hallucis longus 1.10 ± 0.36 0.74 ± 0.39 [0.02, 0.72] 0.19 0.041a 1.06 ± 0.29 0.78 ± 0.34 [−0.01, 0.58] 0.06 0.057
Triceps surae 1.23 ± 0.58 0.80 ± 0.43 [−0.06, 0.91] 0.32 0.079 1.16 ± 0.54 0.73 ± 0.25 [0.03, 0.83] 0.54 0.035a
Abductor hallucis 1.99 ± 1.33 0.74 ± 0.24 [0.29, 2.20] 1.01 0.016a 1.30 ± 0.50 0.74 ± 0.34 [0.16, 0.96] 0.97 0.009a
Plantar quadrate 1.19 ± 0.52 0.77 ± 0.16 [0.05, 0.78] 0.67 0.028a 1.16 ± 0.44 0.82 ± 0.23 [0.01, 0.68] 0.54 0.043a
Flexor digitorum brevis 1.55 ± 0.76 0.79 ± 0.21 [0.21, 1.31] 1.06 0.012a 1.44 ± 0.76 0.71 ± 0.22 [0.18, 1.28] 1 0.015a
Abductor digiti minimi 1.13 ± 0.44 0.69 ± 0.27 [0.10, 0.79] 1.08 0.014a 1.34 ± 0.68 0.69 ± 0.24 [0.18, 1.13] 0.91 0.010a
Flexor hallucis brevis 1.75 ± 0.68 0.77 ± 0.26 [0.47, 1.49] 1.71 0.001a 1.81 ± 0.66 0.81 ± 0.31 [0.50, 1.51] 1.65 0.001a
Abductor hallucis 1.65 ± 0.91 0.80 ± 0.24 [0.19, 1.51] 1.09 0.017a 1.58 ± 0.54 0.87 ± 0.33 [0.28, 1.12] 1.43 0.003a
Interosseous 1.37 ± 0.59 0.68 ± 0.22 [0.25, 1.12] 1.38 0.005a 1.21 ± 0.49 0.71 ± 0.23 [0.13, 0.88] 1.3 0.012a
  1. aStatistically significant
  2. SUV Standardized uptake value
  3. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
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